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60 Cards in this Set

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What are some points that demonstrate that there is an immune response agains cancer?
Some patients with melanomas and renal cancer spontaneously cure themselves due to antibodies recognizing tumor antigen, potent immunological response in autoimmunity, TILs carry TCRs but are inactivated by their micro tumor environment.
What are some points that demonstrate that there is an immune response agains cancer?
Some patients with melanomas and renal cancer spontaneously cure themselves due to antibodies recognizing tumor antigen, potent immunological response in autoimmunity, TILs carry TCRs but are inactivated by their micro tumor environment.
What are some points that demonstrate that there is an immune response agains cancer?
Some patients with melanomas and renal cancer spontaneously cure themselves due to antibodies recognizing tumor antigen, potent immunological response in autoimmunity, TILs carry TCRs but are inactivated by their micro tumor environment.
Why do AIDS patients have higher incidence of cancer?
They are immunocompromised and have lost the cellular arm of the immune system. Loss of immuno surveillance.
Transplantation and immune response
In bone marrow transplants you deplete T-cells from bone marrow, increased incidence of EBV B-cell lymphomas. In solid tumor transplantation you immunosuppress which can lead to cancer
Why do AIDS patients have higher incidence of cancer?
They are immunocompromised and have lost the cellular arm of the immune system. Loss of immuno surveillance.
Why do AIDS patients have higher incidence of cancer?
They are immunocompromised and have lost the cellular arm of the immune system. Loss of immuno surveillance.
RAG deficiency
There are no lymphocytes. Neither B-cell or T-cell.
Transplantation and immune response
In bone marrow transplants you deplete T-cells from bone marrow, increased incidence of EBV B-cell lymphomas. In solid tumor transplantation you immunosuppress which can lead to cancer
Transplantation and immune response
In bone marrow transplants you deplete T-cells from bone marrow, increased incidence of EBV B-cell lymphomas. In solid tumor transplantation you immunosuppress which can lead to cancer
Requirements for tumor rejection.
1. Lymphocytes to serving an immune surveillance role
2. INF-gamma receptors. INF gamma leads to up regulation in antigen presenting machinery (MHC I)
What are some points that demonstrate that there is an immune response agains cancer?
Some patients with melanomas and renal cancer spontaneously cure themselves due to antibodies recognizing tumor antigen, potent immunological response in autoimmunity, TILs carry TCRs but are inactivated by their micro tumor environment.
RAG deficiency
There are no lymphocytes. Neither B-cell or T-cell.
RAG deficiency
There are no lymphocytes. Neither B-cell or T-cell.
Requirements for tumor rejection.
1. Lymphocytes to serving an immune surveillance role
2. INF-gamma receptors. INF gamma leads to up regulation in antigen presenting machinery (MHC I)
Requirements for tumor rejection.
1. Lymphocytes to serving an immune surveillance role
2. INF-gamma receptors. INF gamma leads to up regulation in antigen presenting machinery (MHC I)
What is the current model for how tumor cells are recognized and initate an anti-tumore response?
1. Tumor cells recognized by innate cells and activates them via an unknown signal "danger signal". 2. Innate cells secrete INF-gamma and other cytokines causing apoptosis (direct effect), anti-angiogenic factors, activation of macs and DCs to secrete IL-12. CD4/CD8 response. DCs migrate to lymphnode to presnt antigen
Why do AIDS patients have higher incidence of cancer?
They are immunocompromised and have lost the cellular arm of the immune system. Loss of immuno surveillance.
Transplantation and immune response
In bone marrow transplants you deplete T-cells from bone marrow, increased incidence of EBV B-cell lymphomas. In solid tumor transplantation you immunosuppress which can lead to cancer
What is the current model for how tumor cells are recognized and initate an anti-tumore response?
1. Tumor cells recognized by innate cells and activates them via an unknown signal "danger signal". 2. Innate cells secrete INF-gamma and other cytokines causing apoptosis (direct effect), anti-angiogenic factors, activation of macs and DCs to secrete IL-12. CD4/CD8 response. DCs migrate to lymphnode to presnt antigen
RAG deficiency
There are no lymphocytes. Neither B-cell or T-cell.
What are the typo types of tumor antigens that could be used in immunization?
1. shared tumor antigens
2. unique tumor antigens
Requirements for tumor rejection.
1. Lymphocytes to serving an immune surveillance role
2. INF-gamma receptors. INF gamma leads to up regulation in antigen presenting machinery (MHC I)
What is the current model for how tumor cells are recognized and initate an anti-tumore response?
1. Tumor cells recognized by innate cells and activates them via an unknown signal "danger signal". 2. Innate cells secrete INF-gamma and other cytokines causing apoptosis (direct effect), anti-angiogenic factors, activation of macs and DCs to secrete IL-12. CD4/CD8 response. DCs migrate to lymphnode to presnt antigen
What is the current model for how tumor cells are recognized and initate an anti-tumore response?
1. Tumor cells recognized by innate cells and activates them via an unknown signal "danger signal". 2. Innate cells secrete INF-gamma and other cytokines causing apoptosis (direct effect), anti-angiogenic factors, activation of macs and DCs to secrete IL-12. CD4/CD8 response. DCs migrate to lymphnode to presnt antigen
What are the typo types of tumor antigens that could be used in immunization?
1. shared tumor antigens
2. unique tumor antigens
What are the typo types of tumor antigens that could be used in immunization?
1. shared tumor antigens
2. unique tumor antigens
Do tumor cells directly trigger T-cell activation/priming?
No. Tumor cells are poorly antigenic. DCs are needed for priming because the tumor cells themselves do not have MHC molecules or costimulatory molecules.
Do tumor cells directly trigger T-cell activation/priming?
No. Tumor cells are poorly antigenic. DCs are needed for priming because the tumor cells themselves do not have MHC molecules or costimulatory molecules.
What are the typo types of tumor antigens that could be used in immunization?
1. shared tumor antigens
2. unique tumor antigens
What are the effector mechanisms of the tumor immune response?
Same as viral and autoimmunity. Th response adn cytotoxic CD8 response.
Do tumor cells directly trigger T-cell activation/priming?
No. Tumor cells are poorly antigenic. DCs are needed for priming because the tumor cells themselves do not have MHC molecules or costimulatory molecules.
Do tumor cells directly trigger T-cell activation/priming?
No. Tumor cells are poorly antigenic. DCs are needed for priming because the tumor cells themselves do not have MHC molecules or costimulatory molecules.
What are the effector mechanisms of the tumor immune response?
Same as viral and autoimmunity. Th response adn cytotoxic CD8 response.
What are the roles of Th1 cells in this response?
provide IL-2 to enhance the cytotoxicity of CTLs, produce proinflammatory cytokines which activate macrophages and upregulate CD40L.
What are the effector mechanisms of the tumor immune response?
Same as viral and autoimmunity. Th response adn cytotoxic CD8 response.
What are the roles of Th1 cells in this response?
provide IL-2 to enhance the cytotoxicity of CTLs, produce proinflammatory cytokines which activate macrophages and upregulate CD40L.
What are the roles of Th1 cells in this response?
provide IL-2 to enhance the cytotoxicity of CTLs, produce proinflammatory cytokines which activate macrophages and upregulate CD40L.
How do CD8 T-cells kill tumors?
Recognize peptide on Class I MHC. Generates FasL if tumor expresses Fas it can be activated to undergo programmed cell death. CTL generates exocytic granules.
How do CD8 T-cells kill tumors?
Recognize peptide on Class I MHC. Generates FasL if tumor expresses Fas it can be activated to undergo programmed cell death. CTL generates exocytic granules.
What are the effector mechanisms of the tumor immune response?
Same as viral and autoimmunity. Th response adn cytotoxic CD8 response.
How do CD8 T-cells kill tumors?
Recognize peptide on Class I MHC. Generates FasL if tumor expresses Fas it can be activated to undergo programmed cell death. CTL generates exocytic granules.
What are the roles of Th1 cells in this response?
provide IL-2 to enhance the cytotoxicity of CTLs, produce proinflammatory cytokines which activate macrophages and upregulate CD40L.
How do Tumors evade the immune response?
Genetic instability, Tumor Cell Properties and Local Tumor cell environment
How do CD8 T-cells kill tumors?
Recognize peptide on Class I MHC. Generates FasL if tumor expresses Fas it can be activated to undergo programmed cell death. CTL generates exocytic granules.
What are the main properties of the tumor cell itself that help evade immune responses?
Loss of Antigen presentation (TAP or MHC I loss) upregulation of survival pathways AKT, BCL-2. Resistance to Fas/FasL pathways via loss of Fas receptor, TRAIL receptor (TNF), upregulation of decoy receptors, production of inhibitory molecules.
How do Tumors evade the immune response?
Genetic instability, Tumor Cell Properties and Local Tumor cell environment
How do Tumors evade the immune response?
Genetic instability, Tumor Cell Properties and Local Tumor cell environment
What are the main properties of the tumor cell itself that help evade immune responses?
Loss of Antigen presentation (TAP or MHC I loss) upregulation of survival pathways AKT, BCL-2. Resistance to Fas/FasL pathways via loss of Fas receptor, TRAIL receptor (TNF), upregulation of decoy receptors, production of inhibitory molecules.
What factors in the tumor cell environment lead to tumor evasion of immune response?
1. Local inhibitory factors produced by tumor cells, macs, or stromal T-cells including TGF-B and IL-10. Tregs can suppress the immune response by effector T-cells in tissue and priming of new T-cells in lymph node
What are the main properties of the tumor cell itself that help evade immune responses?
Loss of Antigen presentation (TAP or MHC I loss) upregulation of survival pathways AKT, BCL-2. Resistance to Fas/FasL pathways via loss of Fas receptor, TRAIL receptor (TNF), upregulation of decoy receptors, production of inhibitory molecules.
What are some possible strategies for inducing anti-tumor immune responses?
Transfer of Ag-specifice T cells or antibodies (passive immunity) works for EBV lymphomas and melanoma. Monoclonal antibodies for oncogenes. Active immunization which would require adjuvant
What factors in the tumor cell environment lead to tumor evasion of immune response?
1. Local inhibitory factors produced by tumor cells, macs, or stromal T-cells including TGF-B and IL-10. Tregs can suppress the immune response by effector T-cells in tissue and priming of new T-cells in lymph node
What are some possible strategies for inducing anti-tumor immune responses?
Transfer of Ag-specifice T cells or antibodies (passive immunity) works for EBV lymphomas and melanoma. Monoclonal antibodies for oncogenes. Active immunization which would require adjuvant
How do Tumors evade the immune response?
Genetic instability, Tumor Cell Properties and Local Tumor cell environment
What are the main properties of the tumor cell itself that help evade immune responses?
Loss of Antigen presentation (TAP or MHC I loss) upregulation of survival pathways AKT, BCL-2. Resistance to Fas/FasL pathways via loss of Fas receptor, TRAIL receptor (TNF), upregulation of decoy receptors, production of inhibitory molecules.
What factors in the tumor cell environment lead to tumor evasion of immune response?
1. Local inhibitory factors produced by tumor cells, macs, or stromal T-cells including TGF-B and IL-10. Tregs can suppress the immune response by effector T-cells in tissue and priming of new T-cells in lymph node
What factors in the tumor cell environment lead to tumor evasion of immune response?
1. Local inhibitory factors produced by tumor cells, macs, or stromal T-cells including TGF-B and IL-10. Tregs can suppress the immune response by effector T-cells in tissue and priming of new T-cells in lymph node
What are some possible strategies for inducing anti-tumor immune responses?
Transfer of Ag-specifice T cells or antibodies (passive immunity) works for EBV lymphomas and melanoma. Monoclonal antibodies for oncogenes. Active immunization which would require adjuvant
What are some possible strategies for inducing anti-tumor immune responses?
Transfer of Ag-specifice T cells or antibodies (passive immunity) works for EBV lymphomas and melanoma. Monoclonal antibodies for oncogenes. Active immunization which would require adjuvant