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42 Cards in this Set

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what are the characteristics of innate immunity?
does not require prior exposure to pathogen, includes cellular and molecular mechanisms, 1st line of defense, not specialized
4 things
what are the characteristics of adaptive (acquired) immunity?
requires prior exposure to pathogen (through mom's milk or placenta), has memory and is compact, high antigen specificity, 2nd line of defense, self-nonself recognition
5 things
Give an example of active in the naturally acquired type.
infection i.e. contact with pathogen
waht is the best type of acquired immunity to have?
give an example of passive naturally acquired.
Abs passed from mother to fetus through placenta/milk
give an example of active in the artificially acquired
vaccination with dead or attenuated pathogen
give an example of passive artificially acquired
injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
which cells are phagocytic?
blood monocytes, neutrophils, tissue macrophages (Kupfer cells, Langerhans cells)
examples of anatomic and physiologic barriers?
skin, mucous membranes, lysozymes, stomach pH, vaginal pH, saliva, perspiration
examples of soluble proteins?
interferon (critical in virus infected cells), complement factors, collectins
the response time is quick, the specificity is limited and fixed, the response to repeat infection is identical to the primary response, the major components include the barriers (skin), phagocytes, pattern recognition molecules. Which type of immunity is this?
What is the response time, specificity, response to repeat infection, and major components of the adaptive?
RT: 2-5 dayts
specificity: highly diverse, improves during the course of immune response
response to repeat infection: much more rapid than primary response
major components: lymphocytes, antigen-specific receptors, antibodies
2 examples of lymphocytes?
B- and T-lymphocytes
What do APCs do?
interact with T cells
Where do B cell mature?
bone marrow
What happens to B cells when they are exposed to Ag?
rapid cell division into memory and effector B cells (plasma cells)
What do plasma cells do?
produce Ab
Describe Abs
glycoproteins, 2 identical polypeptide chains, H and L chains linked by disulfide bonds, Ag binds at the amino terminal end, soluble Ab (secreted by plasma cells) are the major effector molecules of humoral immunity
where do you find a soluble Ab?
circulating in the plasma
describe B lymphocyte proliferation
all blood cells start out as stem cells, gene rearrangement, clone out and branch off in peripheral lymphoid tissue into memory cells (number stays the same), Abs, plasma cells (secrete soluble Abs) eventually down regulate
How many antigen specific Abs are there?
10 to the 10
Where are T lymphocytes made and where do they mature?
bone marrow; thymus gland
When T cells are mature what do they have?
surface receptors (TCR)
When naive T cells encounter Ag what does it result in?
rapid cell division into memory T cells, Effector T cells including Th (CD4), Tc (CD8), Ts (suppressor)
What do helper T lymphocytoes do?
assist in multiple immune rxns, activation causes release of cytokines that activate B-lymphocytes, Tc, and macrophages, has CD4 glycoprotein marker on cell surface
What do cytotoxic T lymphocytes do?
kills Ag target directly, has CD8 glycoprotein marker on cell surface, eliminates virus infected, tumor, and non-self cells
Which cell is responsible for transplantation rejections?
cytotoxic T lymphocytes
What are the major histocompatibility complexes?
polymorphic glycoproteins found on cell membranes, also known as HLA (human leukocyte antigens)
What are HLAs important in?
blood donation/transplangs
Where are MHC I found?
on all body cells
Where are MHC II found
only expressed on APCs
Who can have the same MHC I?
identical twins
What can MHC I do?
detect viral infected cells and non self Ag
What is the function of MHC II?
to present Ag to Th cells to activate an immune response
What do MHC II have?
alpha and beta cains
Where are processed Ag carried in MHC II?
on cleft away from plasma membrane
Give examples of APCs
macrophages, B lymphocytes, dendritic cells
What do APCs do?
express class II MHC molecules, produce cytokines that cause Th cells to be activated, first phagocytoze or endocytoze Ag then display part of Ag on their membrane bound to class II MHC molecules
What kind of cells do MHC I interact with
What kind of cells do MHC II interact with
What hormones are immune stimulators?
GH, prolactin, Substance P, insulin, estrogen
Which hormones are immune supressors:
ACTH, VIP, enkephalins