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12 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of immunizations
1) passive
2) active
Describe passive immunization, when it is used, and if there is a memory response or not.
When you inject PREFORMED ABS into an individual

used when need IMMEDIATE RESPONSE

No memory response
Describe active immunization and if there is a memory response or not
immunity obtained either through INFECTION or a VACCINE

You DO develop a memory response
Three types of vaccines
attenuated
inactivated
toxoid
Effect of vaccination can depend on immune status. What are common two factors regarding immune status
AGE & if patient is IMMUNOSUPRESSED
What are positives and negative of attenuated vaccines
POSITIVES

-lasts longer in body
-Generally don’t need boosters
-Stimulates both CMI and humoral immunity

NEGATIVES
May REVERT to pathogenic strain
May cause disease in IMMUNOSUPRESSED
What are attenuated vaccines
non-pathogenic live organsims
What are Inactivated vaccines
killed organism by hemical inactivation or exposure to g-irradiation
Why are inactivated vaccines not as effective as attenuated
-Usually requires MULTIPLE BOOSTERS
-Ags may be slightly altered
-doesn’t stay in body as long
-Primarily a B cell response
What are purified macromolecule vaccines
Inactivated toxins (toxoids)
or Bacterial capsular polysaccharides
Describe immune response to purified macromolecule vaccines
-May get B cell activation without T cell help
-TI-2
-IgM antibodies with little to no memory response
Often purified macromolecule vaccines make use of _________ where conjugate Ag to protein carrier

E.g.,Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide linked to tetanus toxoid (protein)
HAPTEN-CARRIER-EFFECT