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80 Cards in this Set

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immunity
All mechanisms by which the body protects against foreign agents
Two “arms” of immune response
1)Innate immunity
2)Acquired (adaptive) immunity
First line defenses
Barriers: skin & mucus membranes
Second line defenses
1) phagocytosis
2)complement protien activation
3)inflammation
4)Fever
5)NK (natural killer cells)
cells that phagocytize
1)neutrophils
2) monocytes/macrophages (differentiated monocytes)
Complement Protien activation
cell lysis, inflammation, and opsonization (tag microbe for signal for macrophage or neutrophil distruction)
Acquired immunity _______ with exposure
improves
First and second line defences are part of _______ immunity
innate
Third line defense
activation of B- and T-lymphocytes
B cells recognize ___________ Ag
cell bound OR soluable
B cells produce ________
Antibodies
Antigen is a __________
ANTIbody GENerator
B cells are involved in ________ mediated immunity
humoral
T cells recognize ___________ Ag
cell bound
T cells produce _________
cytokines
T cells are involved in ________ immunity
cell mediated
cytokines
direct other cells
some define two levels of hierarchy of host responses --what would this refer to
First line – innate
Second line - adaptive
mechanisms of innate immunity
rapid response (hours)
fixed
limited number of specificities
constant during response
mechanisms of adaptive immunity
slow response (days to weeks)
variable
numerous highly specific specificities
improve during response
The adaptive response is due to ___________
B cells and T cells
Major properties: acquired immunity
Recognition of Self versus Non-self

Specificity

Heterogeneity/Adaptability/Diversity

Memory
B cells maturation occurs in
Bone marrow
T cells maturation occurs in
begins in bone marrow and then thymus
Self-reactive B & T cells
should be destroyed early in development of B and T cells.

Self reactive B cells should be destroyed in the bone marrow

self reactive T cells should be destroyed in thymus
Self-reactive cells not destroyed often undergo
Ag tolerance
Specificity is determined by
antigen receptors
B cell receptor
(BCR; Ab) on B cell
T cell receptor
(TCR) on T cells
B cell Ab has 2 chains what are they
heavy chain
light chain
T cell receptor has 2 chains
alpha and beta chain
Variable region
end part that changes specific to specific antibody
Constant region
does not change
Ab that can be membrane bound or secreted
B cell
Major properties: acquired immunity

Heterogeneity/Adaptability/Diversity
ability to mount various responses depending on the properties of the microbe
intracellular vs. extracellular microbes
Major properties: acquired immunity

Specificity
response against one microbe generally will not be helpful against another microbe
Major properties: acquired immunity

Recognition of Self versus Non-self
acquired defenses must learn to distinguish self from non-self and to sense “danger”
Major properties: acquired immunity

Memory
allows for a quicker response
Rationale for vaccines
_______ recognizes soluble Ag
B cells
B cell Ags can be:
protein or carbohydrate (most common)
nucleic acid or lipid (rare)
epitope dependant on conformation of protein (Denaturation will often
prevent Ab binding.)
discontinuous epitope
epitope not dependant on conformation of protein (not bothered by denaturation)
linear epitope
________ recognize processed Ag presented with the MHC
T cells
MHC
flagpole holding up piece of chopped up pathogen marking the cell for T cell destruction
What are the 2 major types of T cells and what MCH class do they recognize.
CD8+ (recognize MHC class I); CD4+ (recognize MHC class II)
T cell receptor has 2 chains
alpha and beta chain
Variable region
end part that changes specific to specific antibody
Constant region
does not change
Ab that can be membrane bound or secreted
B cell
Major properties: acquired immunity

Heterogeneity/Adaptability/Diversity
ability to mount various responses depending on the properties of the microbe
intracellular vs. extracellular microbes
Major properties: acquired immunity

Specificity
response against one microbe generally will not be helpful against another microbe
Major properties: acquired immunity

Recognition of Self versus Non-self
danger vs. non danger
Major properties: acquired immunity

Memory
allows for a quicker response
Rationale for vaccines
_______ recognizes soluble Ag
B cells
B cell Ags can be:
protein or carbohydrate (most common)
nucleic acid or lipid (rare)
epitope dependant on conformation of protein (Denaturation will often
prevent Ab binding.)
discontinuous epitope
epitope not dependant on conformation of protein (not bothered by denaturation)
linear epitope
________ recognize processed Ag presented with the MHC
T cells
MHC
flagpole holding up piece of chopped up pathogen marking the cell for T cell destruction
What are the 2 major types of T cells and what MCH class do they recognize.
CD8+ (recognize MHC class I); CD4+ (recognize MHC class II)
T cells work best with
best against intracellular Ags
protein/peptide Ags (peptide Ags can associate with the MHC molecules)
Steps in the T cell recognition of Ag
1) Macrophage eats and degrades bacteria, producing peptides
2)Bacterial peptides are bound by MHC class II in vesicles
3)Bacterial peptides are transported by the MCH class IIs to the surface of the cell
4)Th1 cells recognize the complex of peptide Ag w/ MCH class II and activates the macrophage
Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
present protein Ags to T cells (T helper cells; CD4+ T cells)
T cell can then become activated and produce cytokines (regulatory)
“Professional” APCs
Macrophages (Mf), Dendritic cells (DC), and B cells
present Ag in association with the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC class II)
How can adaptive responses recognize millions of Ags?
Somatic cell gene rearrangement
Immunoglobulin is the same thing as
Antibody
Abs made up of __________
heavy and light chain
When immune cells are activated, they produce
effector cells & memory cells
Memory is characteristic of _________ cells
B and T cells
Memory
Rationale for vaccination
Memory cells allow for
increased affinity upon subsequent exposure to same Ag
Primary immune response
~2 weeks (initial response)
Secondary immune response
versus a few days (memory response)
Steps in Ag specific cell proliferation and production of memory cells
1)during development, progenitor cells give rise to large numbers of lymphocytes each with a different specificity

2)in pool of circulating lymphocytes one fits with encountered antigen

3)proliferation and differentiation of pathogen activated lymphocytes form clones of effector cells
secondary response ab production is ________ higher than primary response
1000s of times
Vaccine
– use the immune system to protect against infectious disease
Types of vaccines
1) attenuated microbe – best — can cause disease in some patients

2) heat-killed / chemically killed microbe

3) Toxoids- toxin microbe produces
Passive vaccination
immune system products from another
e.g., Mothers milk (presence of IgA)
Gamma-globulin (anti-bee venom, anti-hepatitis A, etc)
Active vaccination
stimulate individuals immune system to produce memory cells
Overview of immune response
The Ag presenting cell (usually a B cell, macrophage, or DC) presents via the MHCII the antigen to the antigen receptor (TCR) on the T helpor cell. The T helper cell is the general which orders around the other cells using cytokynes. Cytokines can do several things 1) stimulate
production of more Th cells 2) stimulate B cells to become memory B cells and Ab-secreting plasma cells. 3) stimulated Tc cells to lyse cells bearing Ag/MHC class I 4) Increased activity 5) Interferon activates NK cells to non-specifically lyse virally-infected cells