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15 Cards in this Set

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Four Hypersensitivity Reactions
Type I-Immediate Hypersensitivy=Allergy
Type II-involves IgG anitbody
Type III-Immune complex hypersensitivty
Type IV-Delayed type hypersensity (DTH)-cell-mediated hypersenitivity
hypersensitivity reaction
excessive immune respone that causes damage
Allergy
Type I HS; certain diseases in which immune responeses to environmental anitgens cause tissue inflammation and oragan disfunction
Allergen
an antigen that induces allergic reaction
Atopy
allegy mediated by IgE antiboddy...pateints with this are "atopic"
When do type I reactions occur?
Within minutes to hours after the 2ND exposure to allergen
How are type I reactions initiated?
when allergen binds to IgE on the surface of mast cells, which causes degranulation with release of bioactive substances (histamine)
Is the etiology for an atopic agent known?
No, but allegries run in families (genetic factor)
Distinguishing feature of IgE antibody
binds to high affinity FCRI region on mast cells and basophils and exists only as a monomer
Two names for allergic rhinitis
allergic rhinoconjunctiivits and hay fever
What is the most coomon clincal expression of allergic rhinitis?
Its the main cuase of atopic hypersensitivity
What will a lab finding of allergic rhinitis consist of ?
Numerous eosinophils in nasal secretions and in blood AND elevated IgE
What are two ways to idenitfy the specific allergen to help diagnosis of allergic rhinitis?
Skin testing (wheal and flare responese for Type I HS) or In vitro tests
What's the difference b/n early and late phase reaction?
Early phase (immediate)-involves vasoactive amines and lipid mediators and happens right after exposure to allergen; late phase involves cytokines 2-4 hrs after exposure to allergen
What's the steps leading up to when mast cell release their activators?
1. first exposure to anitgen
2. ant. activation of TH2 cells and stimulation of IgE withcing in B cells
3. prodcution of IgE
$. Binding of IgE to FcRI on mast cells
5. 2nd exposure to allergen
6. mast cells activated!