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103 Cards in this Set

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LN:

medullary cords contain
plasma cells
LN:

medullary sinuses contain (2)
reticular cells
macrophages
LN:

paracortex contains
T cells
B-cells and T-cells enter LN from blood through
HEV's
LN:

enlarged during a cellular immune response
paracortex (site of T cells)
LN:

not well developed in DiGeorge syndrome
paracortex (site of T cells)
right lymphatic duct drains (2)
right arm
right 1/2 of head
spleen:

white pulp contains
B cells
spleen:

periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) contains
T-cells
spleen:

red pulp contains
T cells
thymus:

cortex contains
immature T cells
thymus:

medulla contains (3)
mature T cells
epithelial reticular cells
Hassall's corpuscles
thymus:

positive and negative selection of T cells occurs at the
corticomedullary junctions
helper T cells release _______ to stimulate production of Th1 cells
IL-1 through IL-12
helper T cells release ______ to stimulate production of Th2 cells
IL-1 through IL-4
Th1 cells release (2)
IL-2
IFN-γ
Th1 cells activate (2)
cytotoxic T cells
macrophages
Th2 cells release (2)
IL-4
IL-5
Th2 cells activate
B cells (to stimulate Ab production; IgE > IgG)
MHC I is expressed on
nucleated cells
antigen for MHC I is loaded in
RER
MHC II is expressed on
antigen presenting cells (APC's)
antigen for MHC II is loaded in
acidified endosome
main determinant of organ rejection
MHC II
MHC I is made of
α and β-2 microglobulin
MHC II is made of
α and β
directly kills viruses
cytotoxic T cells
APC's (3)
dendritic cells
macrophages
B cells
APC's stimulate CD4 T-cells using
IL-1
costimulatory signal required for Th cell activation
B7 (APC) + CD28 (CD4 T cell)
Th cells activate cytotoxic T cells using
IL-2
function of terminal deoxynucleotidul transferase
adds nucleotides to DNA during genetic recombination

(increases Ab diversity)
mature B lymphocytes express (2)
IgM
IgD
isotype switching is mediated by (2)
CD40
cytokines
IL:

secreted by macrophages (3)
IL-1
IL-6
IL-12
in addition to IL-1, IL-6, and IL-12, macrophages also secrete
TNF-α
IL:

stimulates T cells, B cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells

an endogenous pyrogen
IL-1

(HOT T-Bone stEAk)
IL:

stimulates growth of helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells
IL-2

(HOT T-Bone stEAk)
IL:

supports growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells, i.e., has a function similar to GM-CSF
IL-3

(HOT T-Bone stEAk)
IL:

promotes growth of B cells

enhances class switching of IgE and IgG
IL-4

(HOT T-Bone stEAk)
IL:

promotes differentiation of B cells

stimulates production and activation of eosinophils

enhances class switching of IgA
IL-5

(HOT T-Bone stEAk)
IL:

stimulates production of acute-phase reactants and Ig's
IL-6
IL:

major chemotatic factor for neutrophils
IL-8

(lobes of neutrophils look like an "8")
IL:

stimulates Th2 cells

inhibits Th1 cells
IL-10
IL:

stimulates Th1 cells

activates NK cells
IL-12
IFN:

stimulates macrophages
IFN-γ

(γ causes macrophages to gobble)
TNF:

causes an increase in IL-2 receptor synthesis by Th cells

increases B-cell proliferation

attracts and activates neutrophils

stimulates dendritic cell migration to LN's
TNF-α
cell surface proteins:

helper T cells (5)
TCR
CD3
CD4
CD28
CD40L
cell surface proteins:

cytotoxic T cells (3)
TCR
CD3
CD8
cell surface proteins:

B cells (6)
MHC II (B cell is an APC)
B7 (part of co-stimulatory signal)
IgM
CD19
CD20
cell surface proteins:

macrophages (4)
MHC II (macrophage is an APC)
Fc receptor
C3b receptor
CD14
cell surface proteins:

NK cells (3)
MHC I receptor
CD16
CD56
cell surface proteins:

all cells except mature RBC's
MHC I (all nucleated cells have MHC I)
complement activated by:

classic pathway
IgM
IgG

(Ag-Ab complexes activate complement)
complement activated by:

alternative pathway
molecules found on surface of microbes (esp. exotoxin)
opsonins in bacterial defense (2)
C3b
IgG
complement components:

viral neutralization

pathway
C1
C2
C3
C4

classic
complement component:

opsonization
C3b
complement components:

anaphylaxis
C3a
C5a (together with C3a)
complement components:

neutrophil chemotaxis
C5a (alone)
complement components:

MAC
C5b
C6
C7
C8
C9
complement component:

alternative pathway and classic pathway merge at
C5
hereditary angioedema caused by
C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (overactive bradykinin --> increased bv permeability)
severe, recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections caused by
C3 deficiency
Neisseria bacteremia caused by
C6, C7 and/or C8 deficiency
PNH caused by
deficiency of decay-accelerating factor (DAF)
place uninfected cells in an antiviral state
IFN's
IFN's induce produce of _______ to ward off viruses

function
ribonuclease

degrades viral mRNA
IFN's:

inhibit viral protein synthesis
IFN-α
IFN-β
IFN:

increases MHC I and II expression and antigen presentation
IFN-γ
NK cells activated to kill virus-infected via
IFN's
preformed Ab's given after exposure to (4)
tetanus toxin
botulinum toxin
HBV
rabies

(To Be Healed Rapidly)
antigen variation:

salmonella
2 flagellar variants
antigen variation --> relapsing fever
Borrelia
antigen variation:

Neisseria gonorrhoeae
pilus protein
parasite that demonstrates antigen variation

mechanism
Trypanosome

programmed rearrangement
anergy (def.)
self-reactive T cells become nonreactive if they don't receive a costimulatory molecule
hypersensitivity reaction:

involves attraction of neutrophils
type III
hypersensitivity reaction:

involves macrophage activation
type IV
hypersensitivity reaction:

PAN
type III
hypersensitivity reaction:

hypersensitivity pneumonitis
type III
hypersensitivity reaction:

MS
type IV
hypersensitivity reaction:

Guillain-Barre
type IV
hypersensitivity reaction:

GVHD
type IV
disorder:

antihistone
drug-induced lupus (aks lupus-like syndrome)
disorder:

antimicrosomal
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
disorders (2):

anti-Jo-1
dermatomyositis

polymyositis
HLA subtype:

psoriasis
HLA-B27
HLA subtype:

inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
HLA-B27
HLA subtype:

Graves' disease
HLA-B8
HLA subtype:

celical sprue
HLA-B8
HLA subtype:

MS
HLA-DR2
HLA subtype:

hay fever
HLA-DR2
HLA subtype:

SLE
HLA-DR2
HLA subtype:

Goodpasture's syndrome
HLA-DR2
HLA subtype:

pernicious anemia
HLA-DR5
HLA subtype:

Hashimoto's thyroiditis
HLA-DR5
HLA subtype:

steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome
HLA-DR7
hyperacute transplant rejection:

due to

occurs within
preformed antidonor Ab's

minutes
acute transplant rejection:

due to

occurs within

reversible?
cytotoxic T lymphocytes react against foreign MHC's

weeks

yes
acute transplant rejection is treated with (2)
cyclosporin

OKT3
chronic transplant rejection:

due to

occurs within

reversible?
Ab-mediated vascular damage --> fibrinoid necrosis

months to years

no
GVHD:

due to

signs (4)
grafted immunocompetent T cells attack host proteins

maculopapular rash
jaundice
hepatosplenomegaly
diarrhea