Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/67

Click to flip

67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Immunity
Susceptibility: Lack of resistance to a disease.

Effected by: general health, nutrition, age, and stress.

resistance, nonspecific resistance, specific resistance.
Resistance
Ability to ward off disease.
Nonspecific resistance
Generally present
Defenses against any pathogen (not directed toward any particular pathogen)

1st line of defense
Specific resistance
Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen

3rd line of defense
Innate resistance/immunity
A resistance that you are born with.
Species
Race or Strain
Gender
Species
Pathogens may only infect a limited range of species. e.g. mumps: Infects humans not dogs or cats.

Anthrax: cattle and humans but not birds.
Many are unknown
A.physiology
B.anatomy
c.behavior/diet
What are the reasons for species resistance?
Pasteur
_______ exposed chickens to anthrax and then lowered their body temperature. The chickens died of anthrax.
Physiology (reasons for species resistance)
e.g. anthrax
Temperature is the key. Humans: 37'C
Birds: 41-45'C
Pasteur exposed chickens to anthrax and then lowered their body temperature. The chickens died of anthrax.
Temperature
___________ is the key. Humans: 37'C
Birds: 41-45'C
Pasteur exposed chickens to anthrax and then lowered their body temperature. The chickens died of anthrax.
Anatomy (reasons for species resistance)
e.g. Plant diseases (certain chemical receptors plant pathogens require do not exist in/on the human body.)
Behavior/Diet (reasons for species resistance)
e.g. Fish tapeworm Diphyllobotrium latum.
Ingested in raw fish. Any species that doesn't eat fish is unlikely to get this disease.
Race or strain (innate resistance/immunity)
e.g. Caucasians are more susceptible to diptheria, influenza, and gonorhea. Blacks and American Indians are more susceptible to TB.
gender (innate resistance/immunity)
Hormone levels effect the immune system
1. Intact skin
2. Mucous membranes
3. Hairs of the ears and nose
4. Ciliary/Mucocilliary escalator
5. Lacrimal apparatus
6. Salivary glands
7. Urine
8. Vaginal secretions
9. Reflexes
What are the 9 mechanical/physicial/chemical barriers?
Intact skin
Epidermis consists of tightly packed cells with Keratin, a protective protein. Acts as a barrier to most microbes.
Mucous membranes
Line body cavities that open to the exterior. e.g. Digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. The epithelial layer of _____ _________ secretes mucus which acts as a trap and physical barrier. Much less protective than skin.
Hairs of the ears and nose
Filter and trap microbes
Ciliary/Mucociliary escolator
Microbes trapped in mucus are transported away from the lungs.

smoking makes more vulnerable
Lacrimal apparatus
Manufactures and drains away tears. Continual washing of the eyes.

mechanical barrier
Salivary glands
Wash microbes from teeth and mucus membranes of the mouth.
Urine
Flow of urine moves microorganisms out of the urinary tract.
Vaginal secretions
Help remove microorganism from the vagina.
Reflexes
Coughing
Sneezing
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Chemical defenses
These are both 1st and 2nd line of defenses
Sebaccous glands
Sweat glands
Gastric juice
Transferrins
Sebaccous glands
Secrete sebum: contains fatty acids: gives the skin a low pH (3-5)
Sweat glands
Produce perspiration contains: NaCI and lysozyme
Gastric juice
Contains HCI low pH (1.2 - 3.0)
Transferrins
Iron-binding proteins in the blood. Limits available iron needed for microbial growth.
Plasma and Serum
What is the fluid portion of blood made of?
Plasma
part of the fluid portion of the blood that has not clotted yet.
Serum
part of the fluid portion of the blood that has been clotted.
Erythrocytes
Leukocytes
Thrombocytes/Platelets
What are the formed elements in blood?
Erythocytes
rbc's
blood cells themselves;
function: carry O2
Leukocytes
WBC's

function is in immunity or immunes defenses
Thrombocytes/Platelets
formed element that's function in the blood is to clot
Leukocytes
Granulocytes
1. Neutrophilies (PMNs)
2. Basophiles
3. Eosinophiles

Agranulocytes
1. Monocytes/Macrophages
2. Lymphocytes

Differential blood count

Leukopenia
Leukocytosis
Neutrophilia
Neutropenia
Eosinophilia
Lymphocytosis
Granulocytes
1. Neutrophilies (PMNs)
2. Basophiles
3. Eosinophiles
Agranulocytes
1. Monocytes/Macrophages
2. Lymphocytes
Differential blood count
very useful clinically

Determines the relative percent of each WBC type. Many infections cause an increase or decrease in WBC numbers
Leukopenia
Decrease in total WBC count
Leukocytosis
Increase in total WBC count
Neutrophilia
Increase Neutrophile count

>10% bands= infection or inflammation
Neutropenia
Decrease in Neutrophil count
Eosinophilia
Increased Eosinophil count

e.g. allergies and parasitic infections
Lymphocytosis
Increased lymphocyte count
phagocytic
What is the function of a WBC, neutrophils?
Produce histamine
What is the function of a WBC, basophils/mast cells?
Toxic to parasites, some phagocytosis
What is the function of a WBC, eosinophils?
Phagocytic as mature macrophages
What is the function of a WBC, monocytes?
Involved in specific immunity
What is the function of a WBC, lymphocytes?
1st line and 2nd line
Are chemical defenses first, second, or third defenses?
2nd
Is blood first, second, or third defenses?
2nd
Is mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system (RES) first, second, or third defenses?
phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system (RES)
Consists of phagocytes which enter certain tissues and remain there: Fixed macrophages/histocytes: Ingest bacteria and debris as they flow past in connective tissue.
Found in the liver: Kupffer cells
Lungs: Alveolar macrophages
Nervous system: Microglial cells
Skin: Langerhans cells
Also located in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and peritoneal cavity
Other macrophages are called wandering macrophages.
G.I. tract: dendritic cells
Fixed macrophages/histocytes
When mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system ingests bacteria and debris as they flow past, they are called what?
Kupffer cells
In the liver, mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system are called what?
Alveolar macrophages
In the lungs, mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system are called what?
Microglial cells
In the nervous system, mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system are called what?
Langerhan's cells
On the skin, mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system (RES) are called what?
wandering macrophages
Other macrophages (mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system)that circulate within the bloodstream are called what?
Dendritic cells
In the G.I. tract, what are mononuclear phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system called?
Phagocytosis
phagosome fuses with lysosome and are called phagolysosome.
2nd
Is the inflammatory response 1st, 2nd, or 3rd defense?
Inflammatory response
Response to tissue damage by a combination of nonspecific defenses. Characterized by: Redness (rubor), Pain (dolar), Heat (Calor), Swelling (Tumor/Edema).
Redness
Pain
Heat
Swelling
List the characteristics of inflammation.
1. Destroy the injurious agent, and remove it.
2. Confining or walling of the injurious agaent and it's by products.
3. To repair or replace damaged tissues.
Functions of Inflammation

(Possible question) Why do you have an inflammory response?