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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the immune response
the cellular defense rxns of the body that protect against threats
what is immunity
a state of protection
what are the functions of immunity
1. defense
3. homeostasis
what is memory
a heightened ability to react against an antigen when exposed to that antigen a second time
what is specificity
the ability to react with only one antigen
what type of immunity are antibodies
what is active immunity
immunity that is acquired by bodily processes after exposure to the antigen
what are two types of active immunity and their definitions
1. natural-body comes in contact with antigen naturally
2. artificial-antigen exposure is done on purpose (vaccines)
what is passive immunity
immunity stimulated from outside the body
what are two types of passive immunity and their def's
1.natural-mother to fetus
2.artificial-immunoglobulins ex. tetanus, toxoid, rabies, rh neg moms
what is a defining characteristic of natural immunity
it is species specific
what is natural immunity towards antigens that the body has not had prior contact with maintained by (4 things)
1.Natural Killer cells (NK cells)
2.complement, inflammation, phagocytosis
is natural immunity pre or post thymic
pre thymic
what percentage is of natural immunity is lymphocytes
what are three granulocytes involved in immunity
1. neutrophils
describe appearance of neutrophils
look multi nucleated but not. also called PMNs or polys
what are neutrophils responsible for
phagocytosis of cells
which cell type is the first responder
which cell type is the most numerous
which cell type is responsible for allergic rxns
which cell type would be used in parasitic invasion
which cell type is similar to tissue mast cells
what are two types of agranulocytes involved in immunity
1. monocytes
2. macrophages
when do monocytes come into play
in late states of inflammation
what is the general amount of monocytes in the blood
small quanitites circulate
what do monocytes metamorph into
macrophages when they come into contact with antigens
where do macrophages appear
what are histiocytes
tissue wandering macrophages
What are the three types of lymphocytes
1. b lymphocytes
2. t lymphocytes
3. natural killer cells
what do B lymphocytges turn into
plasma cells
what do plasma cells turn into
so what do b cells ultimately become
what type of immunity are b cells involved with
what does humoral immunity indicate
where are t lymphocytes processed
in the thymus
how do NK cells differ from cytotoxic t cells
do not need to recognize a specific antigen
what do NK cells protect against
target tumor cells and protect against a wide variety of infectious microbes
what immune responses are included in humoral immunity
antibodies, immunoglobulins
what are the two types of cell mediated immunity
1. regulator
2. effector
what are the function of regulator cell mediated immunity
1. helper t cells (CD4)
2. production of lympkines
3. antibody production, macrohpage activation and activation of other cells and processes
what are lympokines responsible for?
regulating immune process
what are three effector functions of cell mediated immunity
1. killer t cells (CD8 and cytotoxic t cells)
2.destruction of virus infected cells, tumor cells, transplanted cells
3. perforins release
what type of drug can we use to decrease immune response
what percentage of circulating lymphocytes are helper t cells (cd4)
what does the helper t cell ink
monocyte-macrophage system
what activates CD4 cells
the epitope flag on macrophage surface
what is released from both cells attaching to epitope
gamma interferon
what does this gamma interferon do
attracts other macrophages and thus amplification
what happens to B cells
lymphokines from these cd4 cells stimulate b cell differentiation
what percentage of circulating lymphocytes are cytotoxic t cells (cd8)
what are the fxns of cytotoxic t cells (cd8)
1. delayed hypersensitivity reaction
2.cytotoxicity for tumor cells
3.perforins releases which damages membranse of the cell surface antigen
what is purpose of supressor t cells
to make sure the rxn does not go on indefinately
what are null cells
1.antibody dependent cellular toxicity
2.recognizes host cells that are covered with antigens
3.large granular cells that lacks the markers of b or t cells
what is the primary immune response
the response after first exposure to the antigen
what is primary response important
the formation of memory cells
how long does it take to form specific antibodies
7-10 days
how long do quantities of antibodies increase
one month and then decline
what is the second response
any subsequent exposure to antigen
which response if faster, first or second
what immunoglobulin is produced in greater amounts with second exposure
IgG for a longer time as well
what term is immunoglobulin interchangeable with
what is general amount of plasma protein in the blood
where are plasma proteins found
blood, tears, saliva, colostrum
what plasma protein is the most prevalent
are immunoglobulins specific on non specific
what is the structure of an immunoglobulin
Y shape
2 light chains and 2 heavy chains
what are the two light chain names
kappa, lambda
which portion of the chain gives specificti
the outer variable portion
Vl section
what portion is constant
the inner portion
which chain gives the antibody its name
the heavy chain
what are the 5 types of immunoglobulins
IgD, IgA, IgG, IgE, IgM
what types of bonds are in immunoglobulins
disulfide bridge
where is the hinge area of the chain located
between the Fab and Fc portions
what makes up the Fab fragment
upper variable and constant portions of arm
what makes up the Fc fragment
base of Y and constant portions of the AB
Which antibody is the first produced
which antibody is a pentamer
which antibody is able to cross the placenta
which antibody is able to secrete
which antibody workes in recognition of the antigen
IgD B cell surface
what antibody is important in anaphylactic rxns
what is agglutination and what is it a fxn of
it is clumpin that is a fxn of antibodies
what does agglutination lead to
what are the fxns of antibodies
neutralization, lysis, precipitation and opsonization
what is involved in neutralization
a. direct attack on the antigen
b. inactivation of the antigen
c. neutralization of toxin
what is involved in lysis of the cell
a. destruction of cell
b. incorporation with the complement systems to obtain lysis
what is involved in precipiation
ag-ab complexes precipation or "fall out" of solution and antigen cells are destroyed
how does precipitation destroy antigen(disease) cells
chemotaxis of phagocytic cells into the area
what is opsonization
the antibody joins antigen that are on the cells surface
what happens in opsonization
coating faciliatates ingestion of antigens through phagocytosis
what does the term "shock" refer to
not enough blood to perfuse organs
what are 4 types of hypersensitivity rxn
1. type 1=anaphylactic shock
2. type 2=cytotoxic rxn
3. type 3=immune complex rxn
4. type 4=cell mediated rxn
which of the four hypersensitivity rxns is an immediate rxn
type 1, anaphylactic shock
which of the four hypersensitivity rxns are late?

What type of cells does this rxn use
type 4, cell mediated

T cells
which hypersensitivity rxns involve antibodies
1,2, and 3
what do all hypersnesitivy rxns need
a primary exposure
What is prodcued from first exposure to Ag in type 1 rxn?

WHat do these cells do

circulate and become fixed on the surface of mast cells and/or basophils
what happens with re-exposure in type 1 anaphylactic sensitivity?
Ag joins to surface Ab which causes release of various substances ex. histamines, from the mast cells
what type of rxn is utilized in a skin test?

what happens
Type 1

a local rxn with a small area of vasodilation, local swelling
what happens with type one if too large of an inoculum is given
massive substance release will result in anaphylactic shock
what are examples of compounds that cause a type 1 rxn
drugs(penicillin), insect venom, allergens
is death posssible from type 1 rxn? if so, how
yes, possible by bronchospasms and laryngeal edema
what types cells react in a type 2 cytotoxic rxn
it is a humoral rxn with IgM and IgG
what happens in a type 2 rxn
interactions with surface Ag which results in incresed phagocytic and lytic processes
what is the subtype in a Type 2 rxn
what are examples of type 2 rxn
ABO incompatibility, Goodpasture's disease (autoimmune disease against lung and kidney lining)
what blood type is the universal donor?

Universal acceptor?
type 0

type AB
what happens with type 3 (immune complex rxn)
an AG-AB complex ppt out of the blood deposits in tissue and walls of blood vessels
what is the Arthrus rxn (type 3)
intradermal challenge after first exposure
what is serum sickness (type 3)
seen with massive immunity from Abs. Produced by non human sources
what are examples of type 3 rxn
flomerulonephritis, arthritis, Lupus
what is type 4 cell mediated rxn
a delayed hypersensitivy rxn occuring after 12 hours minimum
what is type 4 mediated by
sensitized T cells (only 1 of 4)
what are the first two type 4 rxn processes
1. CD4 cells release lymphokines

2.chemotaxis of macrophages w the release of inflammatory mediators
what happens after stage 2 if type 4 rxn persists

what are examples of type 4 rxn

what drug combats these responses
3. tissue damage and chronic granulomatous rxns

4. TB, poison ivy, organ rejections

corticosteroids(decrease inflammation)
what is the ultimate result of the complement system
a cascade of rxn's that ultimately end in Lysis
what is the structure of the complement system?

where are they found
about 20 proteins

where are the complement proteins produced

how do the proteins circulate
the liver

in inactive form until activated(sets off chain rxn)
what is the fxn of the complement system
overall the system acts as an amplifier of all immune rxns in the body
what are major biological roles in the complement system
a. lysis of particulate immunogens(bacteria, tumor cells)
b. modulate and modify immune and inflammatory rxns

c. opsonization
how does lysis disrupt the cell membrane
by building and placing a membrane attach complex on the cell membrane
how is lysis of the cell reached
by the in pouring of water and electrolytes from holes made in the membrane
what are the three general steps leading to cell lysis
1. holes in the wall
2. sodium rushes in bc of diffusion
3. fluid rushes in and the cell bursts
what do the immune mediator proteins of the complement system cause?

what does this allow

immune cells to enter the area
what are the chemotactic activated proteins in the system for
neutrophils and macrophages into the area
how does the complement systems support opsonization
antigens are covered by the complement pro, coated and phagotized quickly and easily
what is the classic pathway of complement activation

specificall what two immunoglobulins
Ag-Ab complexes(immunogen-immunoglobulin) formed

IgG and IgM
what is an alternative pathway to complement activation

why are these imporatant
activation of such compounds as endotoxins, viral envelops and fungal walls

to fight off the first exposure
what is primary immunodeficiency?

what chromosome is it linked to?

is it general or specific?
genetic deficiency

X linked agammaglobulinemia

what are the characteristics of the agammagloculinemia
no antibodies(b cells)

chronic infections by pyogenic bacteria

ex. influenza, strep pyogenes
what is DiGeorge's syndrome?

what is SCID
a deficiency of T cells

severe combination immunodeficient sate (boy in bubble)
what happens if you are t cell deficient
can't fight cancer cells or fungus
what is secondary immunodefic.?
seen at both ends of life
secondary immunodeficiency in neonates:

what do they rely on for immunity?

how long does this immunity last?

describe production
rely on IgG from mother and IgA from colostrum

lasts 3-6 months

low production in neonates
secondary immunodeficiency in elderly:


what ability is decresed

what increases
immune response diminishes

decrease ability to produce IgG and T cells

increasein autoantibodies