Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/91

Click to flip

91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Virus enters cell and either __1__ cell or __2__
1. take over cell
2. lie dormant until some event makes them virulent
How a virus takes over a cell
takes over cell's DNA, forcing it to replicate virus until the cell bursts
if a cell containing a dormant virus divides:
more cells containing the virus are produced
herpes
no cure
medication helps by killing the cells
when pathogens invade tissues:
1. rapid response
2. delayed response
1. nonspecific (innate) immune response
2. specific (adaptive) immune response (requires several days)
two types of specific immune response
cell-mediated and antibody-mediated
4 types of nonspecific responses
1. physical barriers
2. soluble molecules
3. phagocytosis
4. inflammation
physical barriers
skin, mucus, lining of digestive,respiratory, and urinary tracts
two types of soluble molecules
cytokines (interleukin, interferons, tumor necrosis factors) and complement
nonspecific immune responses provide __1__ & __2__ protection against __3__, __4__, and __5__
1. general
2. immediate
3. pathogens
4. some toxins and drugs
5. cancer cells
anatomic physical/chemical barriers:
1. __
skin and sebum are __2__
__3__ in tears from eyes
1. skin
2. antibacterial
3. lysozymes
more physical/chemical barriers:
__1__ hair, __2__, and __3__ of respiratory system
stomach __4__ and __5__ enzymes
__6__ in vagina and urethra
1. nose
2. mucus
3. cilia
4. acid
5. digestive
6. acid
penetration of physical barriers/tissue damage can lead to __1__ which is a __2__ reaction characterized by local __3__, increased capillary __4__, and __5__ helping to combat invaders (__6__)
1. inflammation
2. histamine
3. vasodilation
4. permeability
5. leukocytes
6. diapedesis
diapedesis
movement of leukocytes across the lining of blood vessels to interstitial fluid
damaged cells release __1__ which cause __2__ and draw __3__ toward the area in a process called __4__
1. kinins
2. pain
3. leukocytes
4. chemotaxis
__1__ destroy bacteria
three types: 2
1. phagocytes
2. macrophages, neutrophils, eosiniphils
1. cells which destroy cells infected with virus and foreign/altered cells such as __2__
1. natural killer cells (NK cells)
2. tumors
three types of soluble molecules
antimicrobial peptides
regulatory peptides
proteins that destroy pathogens
signaling proteins that regulate interactions between cells
cytokines
4 types of cytokines
interferons
interleukins
chemokines
tumor necrosis factors
interferons:
produced by __1__
inhibit viral __2__ but don't __3__ virus
__4__ cells don't make much interferon, but some __5__ do
activate __6__
1. macrophages
2. replication
3. kill
4. human
5. bacteria
6. natural killer cells
interleukins:
help regulate interactions between __1__ and __2__
some have __3__ effects
1. lymphocytes
2. other body cells
3. widespread
chemokines:
__1__, __2__, and __3__ of certain cells of immune system
1. attract
2. activate
3. direct movement
tumor necrosis factors (TNFs):
kill __1__ cells and stimulate __2__ cells to initiate __3__ response
1. tumor
2. immune
3. inflammatory
complement proteins enhance __1__ response:
__2__ cell wall of __3__.
coat __3__ enhancing __4__.
attract __5__ to site of infection
1. inflammatory
2. lyse
3. pathogens
4. phagocytosis
5. white blood cells
inflammatory response:
triggered when __1__ invade __2__
vasodilation - __3__ blood vessel diameter
1. pathogens
2. tissues
3. increased
inflammatory response:
increased capillary permeability:
allows __1__ and __2__ to leave __3__ and enter __4__
increased __5__ of infected area
causes _6_
increased __7__
1. plasma
2. antibodies
3. circulation
4. tissues
5. temperature
6. redness
7. phagocytosis
inflammatory __1__ in __2__ activated:
__3__ cells release __4__ and other compounds that cause __5__ and increased capillary __6__
1. mediators
2. plasma
3. mast
4. histamine
5. vasodilation
6. permeability
specific immune responses include immunological __1__
1. memory
an antigen is:
a molecule specifically recognized as __1__ or __2__ by cells of immune system
most foreign substances that penetrate __3__ (examples)
1. foreign
2. dangerous
3. epithelium
(bacteria, viruses, toxins)
highly specific proteins __1__ and __2__ specific antigens are __3__
1. recognize
2. bind to
3. antibodies
each antigen causes body to produce specific __1__ to __2__ antigen
1. antibodies
2. immobilize
antibodies are produced by __1__ that are stored in __2__ tissues and __3__ around the body
1. lymphocytes
2. lymph
3. nodes
cell-mediated immunity:
1. three types of lymphocytes
all produced in __2__ shortly before & after birth, then travel through blood to __3__ where they wait for various __4__
1. T-cells, B-cells, natural killer cells (nonspecific)
2. bone marrow
3. lymph nodes
4. antigens
both __1__ cells become __2__ before meeting antigens
1. B & T
2. immunocompetent
__1__, not antigens, determine the foreign substances our immune system will be able to __2__ and __3__, which is part of __4__
1. genes
2. recognize
3. resist
4. natural selection
__1__ cells in lymph nodes are specific for many different __2__
1. B & T
2. antigens
cell mediated immunity:
specific __1__ cells are activated, which __2__ and go after specific __3__.
__4__ released that destroy cells infected with __5__ or other __6__ pathogens.
1. T
2. divide
3. antigens
4. proteins
5. viruses
6. intracellular
cell-mediated immunity:
original cells will stay in __1__ and recognize same antigen in future becoming __2__ cells
1. lymph nodes
2. memory
T cells are distinguished by T cell __1__. responsible for __2__ mediated immunity.
1. receptors
2. cell
three types of T cells
T cytotoxic cells (Tc cells)
T helper cells (Th cells)
Memory T cells
antibody-mediated (__1__) immunity:
__2__ cells activated in __3__ in wall of __4__
1. humoral
2. B
3. Peyer's patches
4. small intestine
B cells were first defined and distinguished from __1__ cells in __2__ (in the __3__ organ).
later discovered that B cells becomes __4__ in human __5__ then migrate to __6__
1. T
2. birds
3. bursa of Fabricius
4. immunocompetent
5. bone marrow
6. lymph organs
antibody-mediated immunity:
Specific __1__ cells are activated which __2__ and __3__ into plasma cells producing antibodies called __4__
1. B
2. multiply
3. differentiate
4. Immunoglobulins (IgG)
Some activated __1__ cells become __2__ cells which continue to produce __3__ after an infection has been overcome
1. B
2. memory B
3. antibodies
two types of immune system cells:
__1__ develop from __2__ cells in __3__
(T cells become immunocompetent in __4__
B cells become immunocompetent in __5__)
and __6__
1. lymphocytes
2. stem
3. bone marrow
4. thyroid
5. bone marrow
6. antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
antigen-presenting cells display __1__ as well as their own surface __2__
(3 examples)
1. foreign antigens
2. proteins
3. dendritic cells, macrophages, activated B cells
dendritic cells are located in __1__ tissue and are specialized to __2__, __3__, and __4__ antigens
1. connective
2. process
3. transport
4. present
Immune responses depend on a group of genes that encode __1__ proteins, which are mostly unique to each person
1. Major histocompatbility complex (MHC)
Class I MHC genes:
encode __1__
__2__ expressed on surface of most nucleated cells
binds to foreign antigens which is recognized by __3__ cells.
1. self antigens
2. glycoproteins
3. cytotoxic T
Class II MHC genes encode __1__ expressed on APCs of immune system.
Class II MHC genes encode components of __2__ system and __3__
1. glycoproteins
2. complement
3. TNFs
two types of immunity
active and passive
cell-mediated immunity process:
specific __1__ cells are activated by a __2__ complex on surface of __3__ cell.
A __4__ signal and __5__ are also required.
activated __6__ cells multiply, giving rise to a __7__
1. T
2. foreign antigen-MHC complex
3. infected
4. co-stimulatory
5. interleukins
6. Tc
7. clone
cell-mediated immunity process:
__1__ cells migrate to site of infection
__2__ cells are destroyed
activated __3__ cells give rise to __4__ cells which secrete __5__
__6__ and __7__ activated
1. Clone
2. pathogen-infected
3. Th
4. clone
5. cytokines
6. B cells
7. macrophages
active immunity:
develops after exposure to __1__
may occur naturally after ___2__
may be artificially induced by ___3___
1. antigens
2. recovery from a disease
3. immunization with a vaccine
antibody-mediated response:
B cells are activated when they combine with __1__
2 activation requirements
1. antigen
2. APC (dendritic cell or macrophage) with foreign antigen-MHC complex displayed on its surface
APC secretes interleukins which activate Th cells
activated B cells multiply, giving rise to __1__ which differentiate forming __2__ cells which produce specific antibodies, __3__ in response to specific antigens that activated them
1. clones
2. plasma
3. immunoglobulins (Ig)
antibodies (aka __1__) cause __2__ to clump together so that __2__ can be more readily attacked by __3__ and __4__
1. immunoglobulins
2. antigens
3. neutrophils
4. monocytes
Steps to natural active immunity:
exposed to __1__
go through __2__
immune to subsequent exposures because of __3__
(examples)
1. disease
2. primary response
3. secondary response
mumps, some measles, chicken pox, flu (special cases)
neutrophils & monocytes cover __1__ of antigens and __2__, causing the __3__ to rupture
1. active site
2. neutralize
3. membranes
Artificial active immunity:
artificially induced by __1__
used in the case of __2__ that kill or maim before __3__ is elicited
1. immunization with vaccine
2. antigens
3. primary response
most vaccines consist of entire __1__ or of a __2__ made from __1__
1. pathogen
2. protein
antibody structure is __1__ shaped; the __2__ combine with the antigen
1. Y
2. two arms
structure of antibody molecule
four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two shorter light chains
two chain regions: constant (C) and variable (V)
antibody-mediated immunity process:
antibody combines with specific __1__ to form __2__.
may __3__ pathogen
stimulate __4__
activate __5__ system
1. antigen
2. antibody-antigen complex
3. inactivate
4. phagocytosis
5. complement
types of vaccines:
1 (example)
2 (example)
3 (example)
4 (example)
1. similar pathogen (Jenner 1776 - cowpox/smallpox)
2. weakened strain that doesn't cause disease (polio, small pox, measles, rabies)
3. killed pathogen that still stimulates immune response (typhoid, whooping cough)
4. toxoids made from toxins secreted by pathogens; toxin altered so it can no longer damage tissues, but antigenic determinants still intact (tetanus, botulism)
Recombination of DNA segments:
main factor responsible for __1__.
occurs during __2__.
millions of different types of __3__ are produced
1. antibody diversity
2. B&T differentiation
3. B&T cells
primary immune response:
stimulated by __1__
__2__ is primary antibody produced
1. first exposure to antigen
2. IgM
75% of human antibodies are __1__.
__1__ and __2__ interact with macrophages; activate __3__ system.
__4__ present in mucus, tears, saliva, milk; prevent pathogen from attaching to __5__
__6__ and __7__ are important to B cell fxn
__8__ is important to immunity to parasitic worms and release of histamines
1. IgG
2. IgM
3. complement
4. IgA
5. epithelium
6. IgD
7. IgM
8. IgE
secondary immune response:
stimulated by __1__
2. how compares to primary response
1. second exposure to same antigen
2. more rapid and intense than primary response
a new vaccine under development is a __1__ vaccine which is made from the pathogen's __2__ and causes both __3__ and __4__ immune responses
1. DNA/RNA
2. genetic material
3. cell-mediated
4. antibody-mediated
__1__ antibodies are highly specific.
developed in the __2__.
produced by injecting mice with __3__ and then harvesting __4__ which are infused with a culture of __5__ interest cells allowing resulting __6__ to live indefinitely.
__7__ and __8__ and have a myriad of uses in medicine/therapies.
1. monoclonal
2. 1970s
3. antigen
4. B cells
5. cancerous
6. hybridomas
7. pure
8. specific
primary/secondary response system is the basis for __1__
1. vaccination
passive immunity is a __1__ condition that develops when an individual receives __2__ produced by another __3__ (example)
1. temporary
2. antibodies
3. organism
(maternal antibodies are passed to the infant through placenta and breastmilk, providing immunity for 6-12 months, until child's system has matured)
immunological memory: __1__ cells remain in body after infection.
responsible for __2__
1. memory B and memory T
2. long-term immunity
example of artificially induced passive immunity: antibodies against a virulent __1__ from another organism is injected to temporarily boost body's defenses (example/problems)
1. poison
(snake venom injected into animal which produced antibodies, serum with antibodies injected into patient whose immune system eventually recognizes foreign antibodies and make antibodies against them...problems: allergy to initial serum, rabies)
3 hypersensitivity reactions
1. allergic reactions
2. autoimmune diseases
3. Rh incompatibility
allergic reaction: allergen stimulates production of __1__ which combines with __2__ on __3__ cells which release __4__ and other molecules causing __5__ and other symptoms (examples)
often treated with __6__ which block __7__
1. IgE
2. receptors
3. mast
4. histamine
5. inflammation
(hay fever, asthma, poison ivy)
6. antihistamines
7. histamine
another type of allergic reaction is __1__, which is a rapid, widespread allergic reaction that can lead to __2__
1. systemic anaphylaxis
2. death
autoimmune diseases: body attacks __1__
hypersensitivities to __2__.
(examples)
seem to have a __3__ link and perhaps are triggered by __4__ or __5__ infection
1. its own tissues
2. antigens of self
(rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, form of lupus, insulin-dependent diabetes, psoriasis, etc)
3. genetic
4. bacterial
5. viral
Rh incompatibility occurs when __1__ woman gives birth to __2__ baby.
__3__ antibodies develop.
__4__ occurs in future pregnancies.
1. Rh-negative
2. Rh-positive
3. Anti-D
4. Rh incompatibility
Graft rejection:
transplanted tissues have __1__ antigens.
__2__ stimulated
T cells __3__ the transplant.
1. MHC
2. immune response
3. destroy
response to cancer cells:
nk cells, macrophages, and T cells recognize antigens on cancer cells and launch immune response system against them, but cancer cells __1__ immune system by blocking __2__ directly or by decreasing their __3__
1. evade
2. Tc
3. class I MHC molecules
HIV stands for __1__ which is a __2__. causes __3__. destroys __4__ cells. severely impairs __5__.
1. Human immunodeficiency virus
2. retrovirus
3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
4. Th
5. immunity
exposure to HIV might or might not result in __1__ which eventually results in __2__ (amount of time variable) which ends in death either by __3__ and __4__ or __5__. progression of symptoms includes __6__.
1. infection
2. AIDS
3. depressed immune function
4. opportunistic infections
5. AIDS dementia complex
6. swollen lymph glands, night sweats, fever, weight loss
how do specific immune responses differ from nonspecific immune responses?
specific is a more delayed response, targets specific antigens, and is cell-mediated or antibody-mediated. nonspecific is more rapid and generalized.
what does complement do?
nonspecific destruction of pathogens: lyse viruses/bacteria, coat pathogens to make phagocytosis by other cells easier, attract white blood cells to site of infection, bind to specific receptors on cells of immune system and stimulate specific actions
what are the main groups and functions of cytokines?
interferons - inhibit viral replication and activate NKCs, enhance the activities of other immune cells
interleukins - regulate interactions between lymphocytes and other body cells
chemokines - signaling molecules that attract, activate, and direct the movement of various cells of the immune system
tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) - stimulate immune cells to initiate inflammatory response and kills tumor cells
what are the 3 types of processes involved in the inflammatory response?
vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and increased phagocytosis
what are the 2 types of specific immunity and the major players in each?
cell-mediated: T cells
antibody-mediated: B cells
are there benefits of breast feeding and if so, what type of immunity does the baby receive?
yes, gives the baby passive immunity until its own immune system has matured
what are the differences between primary and secondary immune responses?
primary response is slower because the antigen must be recognized and appropriate B cells produced. it leaves behind memory B cells that can immediately produce the appropriate antibodies if the antigen is encountered again. this means the secondary response is much more rapid and effective