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54 Cards in this Set

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PATHOGENS
____________ ARE MICROBES THAT CAUSE
DISEASE
WORLD WIDE DISEASES ARE CALLED
PANDEMIC
DISEASES LIMITED TO A CERTAIN AREA GEOGRAPHICALLY ARE CALLED _______
EPIDEMICS
WHAT ARE THE FOUR CAUSES OF DISEASE?
BACTERIA
VIRUS
FUNGUS
PROTOZOAN
CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES
NOT CELLULAR (HAVE TO REPRODUCE INSIDE LIVING HOST)
- GENOME IS EITHER DNA OR RNA
-Composed of outer capsid made of protein and an inner core made of nucleic acid.
CAUSE DISEASE LIKE FLU AND INFLUENZAS
VIRUSES ARE __________ ON LIVING CELLS
PARASITES
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA?
--SINGLE CELLED ORGANISMS, prokarytic
--LACK NUCLEAR MEMBRANES
--GRAM POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
--CAUSE DISEASES, STREP, SYPHILIS, TONSILITIS,FOOD POISONING, TB, ETC.
WHAT IS INFLUENZA
A VIRUS WHICH IS EPIDEMIC - AFFECTS LARGE POPULATION
WHAT ARE ADHESION FACTORS?
---viruses have spikes that bind to host cell surfaces.

--Covered in a shell studded with two types of proteins.

--Combination of proteins determines the strain.
WHAT IS ANTIGENIC DRIFT
occurs when mutations of the nucleic acid of the spike protein bring about small changes in the antigens
WHAT IS ANTIGENIC SHIFT?
occurs when two different influenza viruses attack the same cell.

MOST PROBLEMATIC
what is mutation process of antigenic shift:
Two characteristics of all type A influenza viruses, including avian influenza, are that they have the ability 1. Mutate
2. Swap genetic materials to merge.
This merging or antigenic "shift" can ultimately result in highly lethal human pandemics.
__________ ARE INFECTIOUS PROTEINS SUCH AS BSE (MAD COW) CAUSING WASTING DISEASE AND AFFECTS NERVOUS SYSTEM -- ARE IN HEALTH BRAIN CELLS, BUT CHANGE SHAPE AND BECOME "ROGUE" (BAD)
PRIONS
WHAT IS AN ANTIGEN?
SUBSTANCE, USUALLY PROTEIN THAT STIMULATES IMMUNE SYSTEM TO PRODUCE ANTIBODIES , recognized as NON-SELF IMMUNE SYSTEM WILL PRODUCE ANTIBODY TO RESPOND)
_________ ARE PROTEINS PRODUCED IN THE B CELLS THAT REACTS TO THE NONSELF ANTIGEN
ANTIBODIES
WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY
A globular protein produced by lymphocytes. Antibodies are involved in the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to antigens
DEFINE MARKERS OF SELF
BODY CELLS CARRY MOLECULES THAT DISTINGUISH IT AS "SELF". IMMUNE SYSTEM CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SELF MOLECULES AND NON-SELF. WILL ATTACK NON SELF.
WHERE ARE ANTIBODIES LOCATED?
THROUGHOUT THE BODY
____ LYMPHOCYTES MAKE ANTIBODIES
B LYMPHOCYTES AKA B CELLS
WHERE DO B LYMPHOCYTES MATURE
THYMUS GLAND
WHAT DO B CELLS PRODUCE
PLASMA / ANTIBODIES
WHAT DO ANTIBODIES DO?
NEUTRALIZING A SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.
WHAT ARE T CELLS
T LYMPHOCYTES
WHAT ARE LYMPHOCYTE?
SPECIALIZED WHITE BLOOD CELLS
OCCURS IN TWO FORMS - T CELLS AND B CELLS
WHAT IS MECHANISM?
PROTEIN MOLECULE PRODUCE IN RESPONSE
TO ANTIGEN
THEY BIND WITH ANTIGEN IN A LOCK & KEY
MECHANISM
WHAT ARE IMMUNOGLOBULINS?
LARGE PROTEIN MOLECULES THAT ARE ANTIBODIES - THEY GUARD ENTRANCES TO BODY -
WHAT ARE THE IMMUNOGLOBULTIN ANTIBODIES AND WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION
IgG - enhances phagocytosis
IgM - activates complement proteins
IgA - prevents attachment of pathogens
IgD - antigen receptors on virgin B
cells.
IgE - immediate allergic response
What are the Organs of the Immune System?
Tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, appendix, lymphetic vessels, bone marrow, peyer's patches
________ are organisms that carry disease such as insects, arachnids,
amphibians, reptiles, birds and
mammals
vectors
________ are diseases that humans get from animals, such as ringworm, west nile and viral encephalitis
ZOONOSIS
___________ IS A BACTERIA SPREAD FROM DEER TICKS AND HAS ARTHRITIC SYMPTOMS
LYME DISEASE
WHAT DOES THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DO?
MARKERS OF SELF - DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SELF CELLS AND NONSELF CELLS AND ANTIGENS PRODUCE ANTIBODIES TO FIGHT NONSELF CELLS - CELLS RELEASE INTERFERON TO PROTECT OTHER CELLS IN AREA
________ VESSELS ARE SIMILAR TO BLOOD VESSELS
LYMPHATIC
WHAT ARE PHAGOCYTES AND WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
WHITE BLOOD CELLS (PUSS-LIKE) THAT ENGULF FORIEGN PATHOGENS
WHAT ARE LEUKOCYTES AND HOW MANY ARE THERE IN HUMAN BODY?
4000 - 11,000 OF 5 TYPES OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN HUMAN BODY
WHAT ARE THE 5 TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES AND WHAT ARE THERE FUNCTIONS
NEUTROPHIL - PRIMARILY EAT BACTERIA
LYMPHOCYTE - B TYPE & T TYPE
MONOCYTE BECOMES MACROPHAGE - EATS
BACTERIA & VIRUSES
EOSINOPHILS - PHAGOCYTIZES & DESTROYS
ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES
BASOPHILS - RELEASE HISTAMINE-
PROMOTES BLOOD FLOW
WHAT ARE THE 4 TYPES OF T CELLS AND WHAT ARE THERE FUNCTIONS?
HELPER T CELL - CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
(CMI) - ORCHESTRATES IMMUNE RESPONSE
CYTOTOXIC T CELLS - ATTACK DESTROY
ABNORMAL CELLS
MEMORY T CELLS - REACTIVATES UPON
LATER EXPOSURE TO DISEASE OF SAME
ANTIGEN
SUPPRESSOR T CELLS - SUPRESS IMMUNE
after antigen's been destroyed
WHAT ARE THE B CELLS AND WHAT ARE THERE FUNCTIONS?
PLASMA B CELLS - SECRETE ANTIBODIES

MEMORY B CELLS - RETAIN MEMORY AND
BECOME PLASMA CELLS UPON
SUBSEQUENT EXPOSURE
IMMUNOGLOBINS - HAS ANTIGEN BINDING
SITES WITH UNIQUE SHAPE THAT FITS
INTO SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.
______ are proteinaceous infectious particles - in cows Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (mad cow) in humans - Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - vCJD
prions
HOW IS INFLUENA TRANSMITTED?
BY DROPLET (AEROSOL) INFECTION COUGHING, HEADACHE FEVER, NAUSEA VOMITING - 20,000-30,000 A YEAR
WHAT IS SARS?
SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROM
What makes up blood and the percentages?
plasma proteins 7%
water 92%
other solutions 1%
WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS METHODS OF DETECTING CANCER?
bone scan
CAT scan
MRI
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS FOR CANCER?
SURGERY
CHEMO
RADIATION
ANTIMETASTATIC DRUGS
BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS
VACCINES
ANGIOSTATIN & ENDOSTATIN
WHAT TYPES OF DISEASES DO VIRUSES CAUSE
COMMON COLD
CHICKENPOX, SHINGLES
WARTS
POLIO
AIDS
COLD SORES, GENITAL HERPES
MUMPS YELLOW FEVER
HEPATITIS A & B
WHAT TYPES OF DISEASE DO BACTERIA CAUSE?
CHOLERA
DIPTHERIA
GONORRHEA
LEPROSY
PLAGUE
STREP THROAT, SCRLET FEVER, IMETIGO
SYPHILLIS
TETANUS
TB
WALKING PNEUMONIA
WHAT TYPES OF DISEASES DO FUNGUS CAUSE
ATHLETE'S FOOT
BLASTOMYCOSIS
HISTOPLASMOSIS
THRUSH
VAGINAL YEAST INFECTION
WHAT DISEASES DO PROTOZOAN CAUSE?
AMEBIC DYSENTERY
MALARIA
CHAGAS DISEASE
LEISHMANIA
TOXOPLASMOSIS
GIARDIASIS
WHICH B CELL PRODUCES ANTIBODIES
THE PLASMA CELL
WHAT IS APC?
ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELL ENGULFS A
PATHOGEN AND BREAKS IT DOWN INTO
FRAGMENTS. FRAGMENTS ARE LINKED TO
MHC.
WHAT IS MHC?
Major Histocompatibility Complex -
aka HLA - human leukocyte-associted) antigens - presented to helper T cell- t cell stimulates cytotoxic t cells to destroy pathogen and infected cells
HOW IS MONO TRANSMITTED
IT IS A VIRUS (EPSTEIN-BARR) TRANSMITTED THROUGH SALIVA
WHAT DOES IMMUNITY INCLUDE?
NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES
BARRIERS TO ENTRY
INFLAMMATORY REACTION
NATURAL KILLER CELLS
PROTECTIVE PROTEINS
FEVER
SPECIFIC DEFENSES
RESPONSE TO ANTIGENS
LYMPHOCYTES B CELLS & T CELLS
Monohybrid Inheritance refers to
inheriting of a single characteristic controlled by different alleles of a single gene