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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Something that causes a disease
Usually found causing probems in the interstitial spaces
causes problems inside the cell
Problem on the surface of the skin
Can be anywhere; Unicellular or multicellular. Organism that is living close to another organism, and the parasite hurts the host
Small enough for the body to deal with
Immune Response
The specific defense response to a specific threat by organizing a defense against that specific threat
The ability to resist infection and disease through the activation of specific defenses
Nonspecific and Specific
A structure that defends against all types of problems.
Physical barrier
Skin, Mucus membrane
Immunological Surrvilance
Immunological escape
Physical Barrier
skin, anything outside your skin cant get in because your skin is a barrier, although bacteria can get through cuts
Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Monocyte.
Basophil will not phagocytize (Mast cell)
Immunological Escape
When a cell is abnormal and not recognized by the immune system
Immunological Surrvilance
NK cells recognize alien cells
Chemicals that produce Chemotaxis which regulate the immune system and tell you where a bad guy is
Several things working together to achieve a goal. Working together to achieve immunity
Inflammation causes...
redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of functions
Inflammation functions
1. To perform a temporary onsite repair and prevent the access of additional pathogens
2. To slow the spread of pathogens
3. Inflammation moblizes a wide range of defenses that can overcome the pathogens and facilitate permanent tissue repair which activates the complement
What regulates your fever?
A chemical that tells the hypothalamus to increase body temperature
How does a fever denature a protein?
By adding enough energy to break hydrogen bonds apart
Specific defense
based on the immune response
Antibody (humoral) mediated Immunity
Cell mediated Immunity
Antibody (humoral) mediated Immunity
Antibody molecule that recognizes the bad guy
Cell mediated Immunity
Cell (a living organism that requires energy) that recognizes the bad guy
Antigen Recognition
All cells have antigens on the surface of the cells. Antibodies react to known pathogens, or Cell mediated immunity recognizes alien cells(alien antigens). Start of Immune Response
Notices foreign cells, when it digests the cell it takes the identifier and sticks it on the MHC
Major Histocomputibility Complex
Loacated on the surface of the phagocyte and helps to show what the bad guys alook like. It also activates T-cells
T-Cells Activation
immature T Cells activated by MHC; this tells them which antigen to go after. Produces other T Cells - Mitosis
1. Killer T Cell (Cytotoxic)
2. Memory T Cell - not active
3. Regulator T Cell (activates B Cell through Cytokines, Interferon
Specifically activate B-cells that are specific to the same antigen
B-cell Activation
Memory B-cells go through mitosis to produce more memory B-cells and plasma cells
Memory B-cells
Activated already to the antigen. In reserve.
Plasma Cells
Produce antibodies
Molecules that flow in the mucus, interstitial fluid, lymph etc. and they recognize the antigen. They are proteins and flag the antigen carrying cell as something that needs to be destroyed
How many antibodies and how long do they last?
10 Trillion Antibodies
Most last 4-20years
Some last up to 80 years
IgG-80% last longest - memory

IgA-15% Fastest and important in mucus


IgE-attached to mast cells and release histamine-important with allergies

IgD-regulates and helps B-cells
6 Different ways to stop a bad guy
1.Neutralize-can attach to something the bad guy needs to eat and once they attach to this they can detoxify the bad guy
2.Agglutinate-Causes bad things to stick together and become immobile
3.Activate Complement-Everything activates
4.Chemotaxis-Tells everything where the bad guy is
5.Enhance Phagocytosis-Antibodies inhance phagocytosis; has a leash to hold onto bad guy
6.Inflammation-When complment and chemotaxis are acviated
Antibody Titer
Quantity of Antibodies in the blood, the more antibodies you have the safer you are
Tumor necrosis factors-local
Phagocyte Regulators-local
Colony Stimulating factors-not local
Tumor necrosis factor
releases a chemical that tells the cell to die
Phagocyte Regulator
you want phagocytes to be under control and to only phagocytize things when they need to
Colony Stimulating Factor
causes production of more White Blood Cells
Immune Disorders
Immunodeficiency- rare, immune system fails to develop normally or is blocked. Example HIV-Immune system is blocked

Auto Immune Disorder-your immune system starts to attack good cells. Rheumatoid arthritis
an inappropriate or excessive immune response to some antigen
the antigen that causes an allergy
NK cells
responsible for immuniological surrvilance
Auto Immune Disorder: Protein ID
Antigen resembles Amino acid on self cells. Measles, Influenza attack myelin sheath
Auto Immune Disorder: MHC
more than 50 diseases: Psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Muscular Sclerosis,Narcolepsy, Diabetes I
Immediate Hypersensitivity
First time in contact with allergen causes immune response
Anaphylactic Shock
Systemic Allergic Response (allergen gets in blood). IgE attached to mast cells activate, release Histamine. Causes swelling, edema (3rd space)
Stimulates sympathetic nervous system - stimulates adrenal gland, increased glucocorticoids, lowered immune response
Immune Response Process
1. Antigen recognition
2. Major Histocompatibility Complex
3. T Cell Activation
4. B Cell Activation
Respiratory Surface area-spehere structure that makes up the lung, it has a thin wall and comes in contact with the pulmonary capillaries
The 4 excretory systems
Digestive-waste products
Uniary-Gets rid of acid and toxins
Skin-Gets rid of heat and sweat
2 portions
Conductin (dead air space)-everything except the RSA, has no gas exchange
Respiratory-Respiratory Surface Area
external nares-takes in the air
Concha-creates resistance to air
1. cleans air
2. moistens air
3. warms air
4. comes in contact with the olfactory epithelium
Mucus Membrane
traps anything that was in the air, it is made up of water and the water helps it move through the cilia. It also transfers heat from the air
move a liquid across the surface of the cell
Cystic Fibrosis
Too many fibers in the mucus, it will then become thick and dehydrated and the cilia cant move it
naso-simple epithelium
Oro-Stratified epithelium
Laryngo-Stratified epithelium
Sleep apnea
no breathing
voice box, thyroid cartliage
Opening to the larynx
Flips down to cover the glottis so no food or liquid will get into your lungs
Thyroid Cartlige
Wraps around the larynx
Cartlige-function is to maintain an open space, which helps provide structure to the larynx
Vocal Chords
across the opening, viberate when air passes through the larynx
The thicker the vocal chord the lower the voice
the thinner the vocal chord the higher the voice
11 cm long and is made up of semi-circular rings of hyline cartlige, gases dont have enough pressure to keep trachea open, so the trachea rings do this for the trachea, it is also a sheath of Irregular Dense Connective Tissue and is made up of psuedo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Trachea splits into 2 primary Bronchai
Right-more verticle and goes into the lungs
Left-more horozontial and goes more around the heart
wall of Alvelous is the respiratory surface area, the functional unit of the respiratory
Respiratory membrane
made up of 2 single layer squamous epithelium that is attached to a basement membrane
1/10 of a micron thick
Very fragile
140m2-surface area to get oxygen in and CO2 out
Alvelor Macrophage
Anything that makes it to the alveoli thats not supposed to be there is eaten by this macrophage
Surfactant cells
A chemical that decreases the ability of water to stick to itself
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Lungs collapse because the alevoli collapse, this takes force to open the alveoli back up and you cant force them to open while you sleep, so you become fatigued and die
Pulmonary Circulation
30mm Hg- pressure to force the blood to go through pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary Embolism
Blocks blood to capillaries which causes an increase in Blood pressure and pushed water out so the lungs end up filling with liquid
Plural fluid
reduces friction as lungs move against ribcage, water helps the lungs to stick to the ribcage
Sample of the plural fluid
attached to the bottom of the ribcage and it forms the floor of the plural and thoracic cavity, it is the main muscle for respiration and when it flattens out it creates a vaccum for lungs
Inbetween the ribs
External-raise the rib cage-exhalation
Internal-lower the ribcage-Inhalation
Respiratory changes at birth
fetal lungs are filled with fluid, but are collapsed. When the baby is born it takes its first heroic breath and after 20-50 breaths the lungs are almost fully open. By two weeks-2 months the lungs will be fully open
2 billion people are affected by this, it forms a tubercle in the alveolus and people usually die from a secondary infection from other bacteria. it is airborn
Pulmonary Edema
Alveoli fill up with fluid and loose RSA and dont diffuse through water
Conjestive Heart Failure
Build up fluid in the lungs, can start pulmonary edema
Pulmonary Embolism
blocks flow of blood to capillary beds to lungs, which can cause pulmonary edema
Inflammation of pluera from not enough fluid
pain, because plural line isnt functioning properly and it makes you hurt when you breathe
Respiratory Cycle
One Inhale and One exhale
Quiet breathing
exhalation passive- diaphragm, move about 75% of air and its passive because the diaphragm is in the relaxed position from gravity
Forced Breathing
exhalation Active- you are actively contracting the internal intercostals
Synergist Muscles
abdominal muscles are synergist for inhalation
Vital Capicity
total usable air you can use
Men 4.5L
Women 3.5L
TV-Tidal volume
amount of air a person breathes in quiet breathing 500ML
after you inhale TV you can still inhale more
3.3L men
1.9L women
Expiratory Reserve
Exhale 1 liter for men and women after exhaling first TV
Risidual Volume
1.2L of air that you can still exhale after vital capicity
Minimal Volume
100ML after getting everything after vital capicity and risidual volume
Other .06% is other gases including water vapor
4 places where gas exchange takes place
Alvelor ventilation
external respiraton
Internal respiration
cellular respiration
Alvelor ventilation
moving outside air to the inside respiratory
External respiration
Oxygen molecule from gas into liquid and has to cross the respiratory membrane
Internal Respiratory
Goes from blood to interstitial space and into the intracellular fluid
Cellular respiration
oxygen stops being an oxygen by itself and becomes water
When you body is too acidic
you breathe faster to get rid of the CO2
when your body is too basic
you breathe slower and you take in CO2
What controls your breathing
Respiratory acidosis
a malfunction of the respiratory system
metabolic acidosis
failure of your metabolism that causes your body to become more acidic
excrete hydrogen in urine if there are too many
buffer the pH of the entire body
Respiratory Acceletory Centers
how fast/often you breath
Inflation Reflex
reflex that keeps you from over inflating yourself
Deflation Reflex
reflex that keeps you from exhaling too much
monitors CSF, aortic sinus, carotid sinus, monitors CO2, O2 and pH concentration
3 things that happen to oxygen
1. Oxygen is released from hemoglobin if your body becomes more acidic
2. Oxygen gets released from hemoglobin as the oxygen concentration decreases
3. Oxygen is released from hemoglobin as the temperature increases
Respiratory system is less efficent, the elastic fibers in the lungs are less functional. Also there is more pain in the bones so people dont want the breathe. Overtime everyone has some degree to emphysema because you get exposed to different things that can hurt the RSA