Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/145

Click to flip

145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Is caused by an abnormal tissue known as neoplasms that grow by excessive cellular proliferation
Cancer
Are neoplasm that invades the surrounding and distant healthy tissues or organs interfering with function and causing death of the entire organism
Carcinomas
Primary tools in the fight against malignant diseases
Surgery & Radiation
Drugs used to treat cancer
Antineoplastic drugs
Main disadvantage of antineoplastic drugs
They are often toxic to normal cells
Classification of antineoplastic drugs
1. Alkylating agents- attacks "alkyl groups" or organic side chains to the proteins within the cancer cell.

2. Antimetabolites- interferes with some phase of normal cellular metabolism.

3. Hormones- Antagonize certain tumors of the reproductive tract and accessory sex organ.

4. Antitumor antibiotics- acts by interfering with DNA or RNA synthesis.

5. Immunomodulating agents- enhance the body’s own defense mechanism to attack the cancer cells.

6. Enzyme inhibitors- interferes with tumor enzymes.

7. Molecular medicine and gene therapy- treat cancer at the cellular level
Alter chemical composition of proteins, probably the(nucleoproteins), of the cell.
Alkylating agents

Note:
All are highly toxic compounds & produce many unpleasant as well as dangerous side effects upon continued use.
Examples of alkylating agents
mechlorethamine hcl (nitrogen mustard, Mustargen)

carboplatin (Paraplatin)

cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)

chlorambucil (Leukeran)

busulfan (Myleran)

cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

thiotepa (Thioplex)

carmustine (BiCNU)

dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)

lomustine (CCNU, CeeNU)

melphalan (Alkeran)

ifosfamide (Ifex)

temozolomide (Temodar)
This alkylating agent is useful for lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, polycythemia vera, & mycosis fungoides.
mechlorethamine hcl (nitrogen mustard, Mustargen)

Route(s):
IV

Note:
Nitrogen is very irritating to the skin; thus extreme caution should be used when the drug is mixed.
Side effects of mechlorethamine hcl (nitrogen mustard, Mustargen)
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Bone marrow suppression
Dermatitis
This agent is used only for the tx of ovarian & cervical cancer, small cell lung cancer, Wilm's tumor, & testicular neoplasms.
carboplatin (Paraplatin)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of carboplatin (Paraplatin)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Ototoxicity
Liver toxicity
This agent is used in the tx of metastatic testicular tumors, in advanced ovarian & bladder cancers, & in a wide variety of other neoplasms.
cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Ototoxicity
Liver toxicity
This agent is primarily used in the tx of leukemias & malignancies of the lympathic system.
chlorambucil (Leukeran)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of chlorambucil (Leukeran)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
This agent is used primarily for malignancies of the blood-forming organs.
busulfan (Myleran)

Route(s):
Oral
This agent is used in leukemias when the pt has become resistant to other drugs. It has been useful in the tx of Hodgkin's disease, multiple myloma, & carcinomas of the reproductive tract & as an immunosuppressive agent.
cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

Route(s):
Oral, IV, IM
Side effects of cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
This agent is used primarily in the tx of cancer of the reproductive tract, lymphomas, leukemias, & cancer of the bladder.
thiotepa (Thioplex)

Route(s):
IV, IM, Intraarterial
Side effects of thiotepa (Thioplex)
Same as those within this group:
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
This agent is used in the tx of malignant brain tumors & in combination with other agents for the tx of multiple myeloma & Hodgkin's disease.
carmustine (BiCNU)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of the carmustine (BiCNU)
Nausea
Vomiting
Renal & Hepatic toxicity
Skin rash
This agent is used in the tx of malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's disease, soft tissue carcinomas, & neuroblastomas.
dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Flulike syndrome of fever
Myalgia
Malaise
This agent is used in the tx of the GI tract & kidney.
lomustine (CCNU, CeeNU)

Route(s):
Oral, Topical
Side effects of lomustine (CCNU, CeeNU)
Delayed bone marrow toxicity
Nausea, Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver and kidney toxicity
This agent is used in the tx of multiple myeloma & nonrescetable ovarian, amyloidosis, & polycythemia vera.
melphalan (Alkeran)

Route(s):
Oral, IV
Side effects of melphalan (Alkeran)
Bone marrow toxicity
Nausea
Vomiting
Alopecia
Liver & kidney toxicity
This agent is used in the tx of germ cell testicular neoplasms.
ifosfamide (Ifex)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of ifosfamide (Ifex)
Same as cyclophospamide:
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
This agent is used in the tx of refractory astrocytoma in adults.
temozolomide (Temodar)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of temozolomide (Temodar)
Nausea
Vomiting
Headache
Are group of antineoplastic drugs that act by interfering in a specific phase of cell metabolism.
Antimetabolites
Side effects of antimetabolites
Severe bone marrow suppression
Loss of GI epithelium
Ulcers of the oral mucosa
Examples of antimetabolite drugs
methotrexate (Amethopterin)

mercaptopurine (Purinethol, 6-MP)

fluorouracil (5-FU)

cladribine (Leustatin)

thiguanine

capecitabine (Xeloda)

cytarabine (Cytosar, DepoCyt)

floxuridine (FUDR)

dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)

fludarabine phosphate (Fludara)

gemcitabine hcl (Gemzar)
This antimetabolite agent is a folic acid antagonist that exerts its action by interfering with the formation of the reduced , or active, form of folic acid in the body.

Useful in the tx of acute lymphocytic leukemias of childhood & leukemic meningitis.
methotrexate (Amethopterin)

Route(s):
Oral, IV, IM
This antimetabolite agent inhibits the synthesis of purines (components of DNA).
mercaptopurine (Purinethol, 6-MP)

Route(s):
Oral

Tx:
Acute lymphocytic leukemias, Hodgkin's disease, & other tumors of lymphatic system.
This antimetabolite agent is a chemical analog of uracil, a component of DNA that is used in the tx of carcinomas of the reproductive tract, liver, pancreas, & GI tract.
fluorouracil (5-FU)

Route(s):
IV, Topical

Note:
When incorporated into the DNA molecule, it interferes with normal growth & metabolism of the cell.
This antimetabolite agent is indicated for the tx of hairy cell leukemia.
cladribine (Leustatin)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of cladribine (Leustatin)
Nephrotoxicity
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Headache
Edema
This antimetabolite agent is used to treat acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, & solid tumors.
thioguanine

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of thioguanine
Myelosuppression
Pancytopenia
Hyperuricemia
Nausea
Vomiting
Intestinal necrosis and perforations
This antimetabolite agent is used to treat metastatic breast cancer that is resistant to other agents.
capecitabine (Xeloda)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of capecitabine (Xeloda)
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Abdominal pain
Stomatitis
Edema
Paresthesias
Hyperbilirubinemia
This antimetabolite agent is used primarily in the tx of acute myelocytic leukemia in adults, other adult & childhood leukemias, & lymphomatous meningitis.
cytarabine (Cytosar, DepoCyt)

Route(s):
IV, Intrathecal
Side effects of cytarabine (Cytosar, DepoCyt)
Bone marrow & GI symptoms
Fever
Rash
Cellulitis
Pain @ injection site
Sore throat
Conjuctivitis
Alopecia
This antimetabolite agent act by interefing with the synthesis of DNA. Is used primarily for the tx of tumors of the head, neck, brain, liver, gallbladder, & bile ducts.
floxuridine (FUDR)

Route(s):
Intraarterial
Side effects of floxuridine (FUDR)
Generally related to the area where the drug was infused and include:
Oral stomatitis
Esophagopharyngitis
Duodenal ulcer
GI bleeding
This antimetabolite agent has many uses, including tx of melanoma & Hodgkin's disease.
dacarbazine (DTIC-Dome)

Route(s):
Intraarterial
This antimetabolite agent is used for the tx in chronic lymphocytic leukemia & non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
fludarabine phosphate (Fludara)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of fludarabine phosphate (Fludara)
Neurotoxicity
Myelosuppression
This antimetabolite agent is use d for the tx of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas & lung & bladder cancer.
gemcitabine hcl (Gemzar)

Route(s):
IV

Note:
This agent should be given with caution to pt with renal & hepatic impairment.
Side effects of gemcitabine hcl (Gemzar)
Hematologic toxicity
Hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
Corticosteroids
Side effects of excessive administration of corticosteroids
Salt & water retention
Moon facies
Edema
Striae
This type of corticosteroids is used perhaps more than any other in treating malignancies.
Prednisone
Steroids responsible for feminine characteristics, may be administered to men with carcinoma of the prostate.
Estrogens

Note:
Also been found to be of value in the tx of postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
This agent is only palliative not curative.
Substances causing masculinazation
Androgens

Note:
This agent is only palliative not curative.
Side effects of Endrogens & Androgens
Virilization (masculinazation) when
andgrogens are given to a woman.

Feminization when estrogens are given to a man.
Example of Androgens
testolactone suspension (Teslac)

methyltestosterone (Android, Testred)
This analog testosterone is a hormone derivative & is used in the tx of malignancies & has been used as palliative therapy for metastatic breast carcinoma in premenopausal women when surgery is not feasible.
testolactone suspension(Teslac)

Route(s):
Oral, IM
Side effects of testolactone suspension (Teslac)
Neurologic symptoms
Nausea
Vomiting
Alopecia
This agent is used to treat women with advanced & inoperable metastatic breast cancer.
methyltestosterone (Android, Testred)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of methyltestosterone (Android, Testred)
Virilization
Deepening of the voice
Hirsutism
Acne
Clitoromegaly
Amenorrhea
Examles of antiandrogens
nilutamide (Nilandron)

flutamide (Eulexin)

bicalutamide (Casodex)
This nonsteroidal orally active antiandrogen is used to treat metastatic prostate cancer.
nilutamide (Nilandron)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of nilutamide (Nilandron)
Hepatic impairment
Respiratory insufficiency
Interstitial pneumonia
This agent is orally active antiandrogen used to treat metastatic cancer of the prostate.
flutamide (Eulexin)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of flutamide (Eulexin)
Gynecomastia
Impotence
Drowsiness
Anemia
Edema
This antiandrogen agent is used in combination therapy for the tx of metastatic cancer.
bicalutamide (Casodex)

Route(s):
Oral
Side effects of bicalutamide (Casodex)
Hepatic impairment
Back pain
Headache
Flulike symptoms
Anorexia
Vomiting
Examples of estrogens
megestrol acetate (Megace)

estramustine phosphate sodium (Emcyt)
This agent is chemically related to progesterone, is used in the tx of endometrial carcinoma, breast cancer, endometriosis, & prostatic hypertrophy.
megestrol acetate (Megace)

Route(s):
Oral
This estrogen agent, a combination of 17-beta-estradiol & nornitrogen mustard is used for the tx of metastatic prostate cancer
estramustine phosphate sodium (Emcyt)

Route(s):
Oral

Note:
Absorption is significantly decreased when it it given with dairy products or other calcium-rich foods.
Side effects of estramustine phosphate sodium (Emcyt)
Angiodema
Thromboembolic disorders
Caridovascular & hepatic effects
Example of antiestrogen agent
fulvestrant (Faslodex, (IM)

This antiestrogen agent is used to treat metastatic breast cancer in women who have had a recurrence following tamoxifen therapy.
Side effects of fulvestrant (Faslodex)
Hematologic disorders
GI effects of nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Abdominal pain
A group within the antiestrogens that exert selective agonist or antagonist effects on various estrogen target tissues.
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

Because of their estrogen receptor-activating properties, they can be used to prevent or treat OSTEOPOROSIS.
Because of their estrogen receptor-blocking properties, they can be used to prevent or treat breast cancer.
Two major limitations of SERMs
They are only weak estrogen agonists

They aggravate hot flashes
Side effects of SERMs
Nausea
Vomiting
Headache
Hot flashes
Constipation
Abdominal pain
Examples of SERMs
tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)

toremifene citrate (Fareston)
This SERMs agent competes with estradiol for receptor sites in tumors of the breast, uterus, & vagina
tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)

Route(s):
Oral

Note:
Its primary use is in the tx of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
This SERMs agent is indicated for the tx of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women
toremifene citrate (Fareston)

Route(s):
Oral

Note:
This should not be used in pt with a history of thromboembolic disease.
Side effects of toremifene citrate (Fareston)
Hypercalcemia
Leukopenia
Vaginal bleeding
An enzyme that converts a naturally occuring adrenal hormone to additional estrone.
Aromatase

Note:
Aromatase inhibitors - interfere with this process.
Are used to treat advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
Example of Aromatase inhibitors
anastrozole (Arimidex)

exemestane (Aromasin)

letrozole (Femara)

Note:
All are given orally.
Examples of Pituitary Hormones Inhibitors
goserelin acetate (Zoladex)

leuprolide acetate (Lupron)

triptorelin pamoate (Trelstar)
This pituitary hormones inhibitor is used for the tx of prostate & breast cancer, endometriosis, & dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
goserelin acetate (Zoladex)

Route(s):
Subcutaneous implant
Side effects of goserelin acetate (Zoladex)
Hot flashes
Sexual dysfunction
Headache
Blood pressure
Instability
Rash
Dizziness
This pituitary hormones inhibitor is similar in terms of its uses & side effects to those of goserelin acetate, but in addition it is used to treat precocious puberty.
leuprolide acetate (Lupron)

Route(S):
IM or subQ
This pituitary hormones inhibitor is similar in terms of its uses & side effects to the other drugs in this category. It is used in the palliative tx of prostate cancer.
triptorelin pamoate (Trelstar)
Examples of Antitumor antibiotic
dactinomycin (Actinomycin D, Cosmegen)

bleomycin sulfate (Blenoxane)

mitoxantrone hcl (Novantrone)

doxorubicin hcl (Adriamycin, Rubex, Doxil)

valrubicin (Valstar)

mithramycin (Mithracin)

mitomycin (Mutamycin)

daunorubicin hcl (Cerubidine, Daunoxome)

idarubicin hcl (Idamycin)

pentostatin (Nipent)

streptozocin (Zanosar)

epirubicin hcl (Ellence)
This antitumor antibiotic exerts its effect as an antineoplastic agent by interfering with RNA systhesis.It is used in the tx of Wilm's tumor of the kidney & for control metastases of this tumor.
dactinomycin (Actinomycin D, Cosmegen)

Route(s):
IV

Addt'l uses in the tx of:
Metastatic tumor of the testes
Choriocarcinoma
Certain lymphomas
Side effects of dactinomycin (Actinomycin D, Cosmegen)
Bone marrow suppression
Liver and kidney toxicity
Nausea, Vomiting
Oral stomatitis
Anorexia
Skin eruptions
The antibiotic action of this antitumor agent appears to occur by causing a splitting of the DNA chain.
bleomycin sulfate (Blenoxane)

Route(s):
IV, IM, subQ, Intrarterial, Intrapleural injection)

Tx of:
Hodgkin's disease
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, penis, vulva, head, neck, & larynx.
Side effects of bleomycin sulfate (Blenoxane)
Interstitial pneuminitis
Skin or mucocutaneous lesions
Alopecia
Fever
Chills
Hypotension
This antitumor antibiotic is used to treat acute nonlymphocytic leukemia & advanced prostate cancer.
mitoxantrone hcl (Novantrone)

Route(s):
IV only
Side effects of mitoxantrone hcl (Novantrone)
Bone marrow suppression
Cardiac toxicity
Nausea, Vomiting
Fatigue
Hemorrhage
This antitumor antibiotic, produced by a strain of Streptomyces is used in the tx of solid tumors of the breast, ovaries, bladder, lung, thyroid gland, & bone.
doxorubicin hcl (Adriamycin, Rubex, Doxil)

Route(s):
IV

Also useful in the tx of:
Neuroblastoma
Wilms' tumor
Hodgkin's disease
Ewing's sarcoma
Squamous cell tumors of the head, neck, cervix, & vagina
Carcinomas of the testes, prostate & uterus
Side effects of doxorubicin hcl (Adriamycin, Rubex, Doxil)
The major side effects are found in bone marrow & GI tract.

Addt'l side effects:
Facial flushing
Edema
Alopecia
Fever
Chills
Skin rashes
This agent is a semisynthetic of doxorubicin. It is used for instillation into the urinary bladder for carcinoma in situ of the bladder.
valrubicin (Valstar)

Route(s):
Intravesical
Side effects of valrubicin (Valstar)
Bladder spasm
Hematuria
Incontinence
Pelvic pain
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Peripheral edema
This antitumor antibiotic agent, also produced by a strain of Streptomyces is used in the tx of testicular tumors.
mithramycin (Mithracin)

Route(s):
IV
Side effects of mithramycin (Mithracin)
Primary side effects are found in the bone marrow and intestinal tract.

Other side effects:
Facial flushing
Malaise
Depression
Phlebitis
Skin rashes
This antitumor antibiotic is used in the tx of adenocarcinoma of the stomach, pancreas, colon, & rectum; squamous cell carcinomas of lungs, cervix, head, & neck; and malignang melanoma
mitomycin (Mutamycin)

Route(s):
IV
This antitumor antibiotic agent inhibits DNA synthesis and is used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia.
daunorubicin hcl (Cerubidine, Daunoxome)

Route(s): IV

Note:
Also used for tx of lymphocytic leukemia & disseminated neuroblastoma.
This antitumor antibiotic agent inhibits nucleic acid synthesis and is used for the tx of acute myeloid leukemia in adults.
idarubicin hcl (Idamycin)

Route(s): IV
Side effects of idarubicin hcl (Idamycin)
Tissue necrosis
Myocardial toxicity
Nausea
Vomiting
Peripheral neuropathy
This antitumor antibiotic is for the tx of hairy cell leukemia.
pentostatin (Nipent)

Route(s): IV
Side effects of pentostatin (Nipent)
Toxicities in:
Renal
Liver
Pulmonary
CNS
This antitumor antibiotic is produced by Streptomyces achromogenes and is used to treat pancreatic islet cell carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, Hodgkin's disease, & colorectal cancer.
streptozocin (Zanosar)

Route(s): IV or Intraarterial
Side effects of streptozocin (Zanosar)
Nephrotoxicity
Nausea
Vomiting
Bone marrow suppression
Tissue necrosis
Confusion
Depression
This antitumor antibiotic is related to doxorubicin and is used for the tx of breast cancer.
epirubicin hcl (Ellence)

Route(s): IV

Side effect:
Is similar to those of its parent compound.
Examples of enzyme inhibitors
asparaginase (Elspar)

imatinib mesylate (Gleevec)

irinotecan hcl (Camptosar)

pegaspargase (Oncaspar)
This enzyme inhibitor, derived from E. coli i, is used in combination chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia.
asparaginase (Elspar)

Route(s): IM or IV

Note:
Can be used in adult as well.
Side effects of asparaginase (Elspar)
Skin rashes
Hepatic, Renal and Hematologic effects
A inhibitor of tyrosine kinase is used in the tx of chronic myelogenous leukemia.
imatinib mesylate (Gleevec)

Route(s): Oral
Side effects of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec)
Neutropenia
Liver toxicity
Fluid retention
A DNA topoisomerase, is used in the tx of GI, cervical, & lung cancer.
irinotecan hcl (Camptosar)

Route(s): IV
Side effects of irinotecan hcl (Camptosar)
Neutropenia
Diaarhea
Fever
Cardiovascular toxicity
A conjugated asparaginase, this agent is used in the tx of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia.
pegaspargase (Oncaspar)

Route(s): IM
Side effects of pegaspargase (Oncaspar)
Hypotension
Cough
Epistaxis
Malaise
Nausea
Vomiting
A new form of cancer treatment has been introduced with the current development of interferons via Recombitant DNA technique
Immunomodulating Agents
Examples of Immunomodulating agents
interferon alfa (Roferon-A, Alferon N, Rebetron)

levamisole hcl (Ergamisol)

aldesleukin (Proleukin)
An immunomodulating agent that has growth inhibiting effect on normal and malignant cells.
interferon alfa (Roferon-A, Alferon N, Rebetron)

Route(s): subQ or IM
Two types of interferon alfa
interferon alfa 2-A and 2-B

Note:
Are used in the tx of hairy leukemia; Kaposi’s sarcoma; renal cell carcinoma; Bladder cervical and ovarian cancer.
Side effects of interferon alfa (Roferon-A, Alferon N, Rebetron)
Flulike syndrome
Myalgia
Arthralgia
Anorexia
Mental disturbances
Elevated liver enzymes
Skin rashes
This immunomodulating agent is used for the tx of advanced colon cancer.
levamisole hcl (Ergamisol)

Route(s): Oral
Side effects of levamisole hcl (Ergamisol)
Encephalopathy
Peripheral neuropathy
Seizures
Confusion
Coma
This human recombinant interleukin is used for the tx of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma & metastatic melanoma.
aldesleukin (Proleukin)

Route(s): IV
Side effects of aldesleukin (Proleukin)
Ventricular tachycardia
Cardiac tamponade
Renal failure
Toxic psychosis
GI bleeding
Other miscellaneous cancer treatment agents
vincristine sulfate (Oncovin)

vinblastine sulfate (Velban)

procarbazine hcl (Matulane)

hydroxyurea (Hydrea)

azathioprine (Imuran)

mitotane (Lysodren)
This misc. agent acts by interfering with normal cellular division and is used in the tx of acute leukemias.
vincristine sulfate (Oncovin)

Route(s): IV
Side effects of vincristine sulfate (Oncovin)
Bone marrow suppression
Neurologic symptoms
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Abdominal pain
This misc. agent also acts by interfering with normal cellular division and is used in the tx of Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma & choriocarcinoma.
vinblastine sulfate (Velban)

Route(s): IV

Side effects:
Similar to vincristine
This misc. agent is effective in the tx of Hodgkin's disease.
procarbazine hcl (Matulane)

Route(s): Oral
Side effects of procarbazine hcl (Matulane)
Leukopenia
Nausea
Vomiting
Muscle and joint pain
Neurologic symptoms
This misc. agent, a derivative of urea, acts by interfering in the formation of DNA. It is used in the tx of malignant melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, & chronic granulocytic leukemia.
hydroxyurea (Hydrea)

Route(s): Oral
Side effects of hydroxyurea (Hydrea)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Ulceration of the bucal mucosa & GI epithelium
Neurologic symptoms
Alopecia
Dermatoses
This misc. agent inhibit RNA & DNA synthesis. It is used to prevent the rejection of kidney transplant.
azathioprine (Imuran)

Route(Oral)
Side effects of azathioprine (Imuran)
Bone marrow suppression
Nausea
Vomiting
Jaundice
Mucous membrane ulcers
This misc. agent is used to suppress the adrenal cortex & alter the utilization of steroids. It is used in the tx of adrenocortical carcinoma.
mitotane (Lysodren)

Route(s): Oral
Side effects of mitotane (Lysodren)
GI disturbance
Somnolence
Dizziness
Anorexia
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Supportive agent
epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)

Note:
It is used for the tx of chronic anemia.
Also used to treat anemia associated with chronic renal failure, hemodialysis.
Also high potential for abuse by athletes to increase the oxygen-carrying ability of cells.