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30 Cards in this Set

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MCD in ARF?
infection
Def. of ARF?
rapid decline in renal fx. with an increase in Cr level

relative increase of 50% or absolute increase of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL
MCC of postrenal filure
BPH - urethral obstruction
MCC chronic renal failure
diabetes!
azotemia refers to?
elev. of BUN
uremia refers to?
si/sx assoc. with accumulation of nitrogenous wastes due to impaired renal fx.

usually, BUN>60mg/dL
3 key features of nephrotic syndrome
proteinuria
hypoalbuminemia
hyperlipidemia
Examination of urine sediment:
RBC =
WBC =
Fatty casts =
RBC = GN
WBC = pyelonephritis & interstitial nephritis
Fatty casts = nephrotic syndrome
Gross painless hematuria
bladder ca
microscopic hematuria v. gross hematuria
microscopic = glomerular
gross = post renal causes - trauma, stones, malignancy)
hyperkalemia - how can you remove K from serum? (3)
1. dialysis
2. diuretics
3. cation exchange resins - kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate)
MoA of Kayexalate
cation exchange resin - acts in the GI tract by promoting exchange of Na for K and thereby increasing excretion of K
Indications for Dialysis
AEIOU and sometimes Y
Acidosis, pH<7.2
Electrolytes, refractory hyperK
Intoxication, methanol, ethylene glycol, ASA, lithium
Overload, hypervolemia, pulm edema
Uremic pericarditis/encephalopathy/neuropathy
Yhtapolugoac, 2ary to renal failure
nephrotic syndrome + abd. pain + fever + hematuria =
rena vein thrombosis; antithrombin III is lost in urine putting pts. at incr. risk of venous/arterial thrombosis
nephrotic syndrome is most commonly caused by?
adults: membranous glomerulonephritis

children: minimal change ds.
What serum Cr level is safe for contrast CT?
<1.5

if >1.5 use non ionic contrast OR ultrasound
MCC of glomerular hematuria
IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease)
MCC of nephritic syndrome
poststreptococcal GN
Poststreptococcal GN occurs after infection with ______.
group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of respiratory tract
proliferative GN + pulmonary hemorrhage + IgG anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody
Goodpasture's syndrome
MCC of acute interstitial nephritis
acute allergic rxn to a medication
eosinophils in urine suggest what?
acute interstitial nephritis
What disease has a defective amino acid transporter (in the kidney)?
Hartnup syndrome - decreased intestinal and renal reabsorption of neutral aa's, such as tryptophan, causing nicotinamide deficiency
What kidney disease manifests like pellagra?
3 D's:
dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Hartnup syndrome
Adult polycystic Kidney Disease - associated finding in the brain?
intracerebral berry aneurysm
medullary sponge kidney is thought to be associated with what other disease?
hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid adenoma
most common cause of secondary HTN?
renal artery stenosis - decr. blood flow to JG apparatus, RAA system becomes activated, HTN
What HTN drug is contraindicated in pts. with renovascular HTN?
ACEI
MC site of nephrolithiasis impaction
ureterovesicular junction
Prostate Ca commonly begins where in the gland?
periphery then moves centrally - obstructive symptoms LATE