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28 Cards in this Set

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organizational culture
a cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by organization members
toxic organizational cultures
organizational cultures in which people feel that they are not valued
healthy organizational cultures
organizational cultures in which people feel that they are valued
subcultures
cultures existing within parts of organizations rather than entirely throughout them
dominant culture
the distinctive, overarching "personality" of an organization
double S cube
a system of catergorizing four types of organizational culture by combining two dimensions-sociability and solidarity; each of the four resulting cultural types-networked, mercenary, fragmented, and communal-can be both positive and negative
sociability
a dimension of the double S cube characterized by the degree of friendliness typically found among members of an organization
solidarity
a dimension of the S cube characterized by the degree to which people in an organizatin share a common understanding of the tasks and goals about which they are working
networked culture
this type of organizational culture is characterized by high levels of sociability and low levels of solidarity
mercenary culture
this type of organizational culture is characterized by a low degree of sociability and a high degree of solidarity
fragmented culture
this type of organizational culture is characterized by a low degree of sociability and a low degree of solidarity
communal culture
this type of organizational culture is characterized by a high degree of sociability and a high degree of solidarity
symbols
material objects that connot meanings that extend beyong their intrinsic content
statements of principle
explicitly written statements describing the principle beliefs that guide an organization; such documents can help reinforce an organization's culture
codes of ethics
documents in which explicit statements are made that express a company's ethical values
culture clashes
problems resulting from attempts to merge two or more organizational cultures that are incompatible
creativity
the process by which individuals or teams produce novel and useful ideas
organizational change
planned or unplanned transformations in an organization's structure, technology, and/or people
first-order change
change that is continuous in nature and involves no major shifts in the way an organization operates
second-order change
radical change; major shifts involving many different levels of the organization and many different aspects of business
doomsday management
the practice of introducing change by suggesting that an impending crisis is likely
unplanned change
shifts in organizational activities due to forces that are external in nature, those beyond an organization's control
strategic planning
the process of formulating, implementing, and evaluating decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives
downsizing
the process of systematically reducing the number of employees required to operate effectively
outsourcing
the practice of eliminating parts of organizations that focus on noncore sectors of the business and hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead
stakeholder
any individual or group in whose interest an organization is run
resistance to change
the tendency for employees to be unwilling to go along with organizatinal changes, either because of individual fears of the unknown, or organizational impediments
structural inertia
the organizational forces acting on employees, encouraging them to perform their jobs in certain ways, thereby making them resistant to change