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50 Cards in this Set

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Lowell Offering
a publication of the Improvement Circle, whose writers and editors were Lowell factory girls
master
an artisan who owned his means of production and hired journeymen and taught/housed apprentices
mercantilism
economic system popular in 17th century Europe based in the belief in a worldwide finite amount of wealth
1-country must be self-sufficient
2-export > import
3-colonies have untapped wealth that must be claimed
indentured servitude
contractual agreement by which a laborer is provided overseas transportation/forgiven for debts by committing him/herself to a long period of guarenteed labor; master must provide room and board based on indenture (ie, contract)
family labor
children provide the source of labor in this system; hire other people's kids; hired out your own extra kids; parents had authority over decisionmaking regarding child exporting
"help"
Puritan term to describe "hired hands" (men) and "servants" (women in the home)
task orientation
in the artisan household, apprentices and journeymen worked until they had completed their obligations for the day; there were no set hours of work
artisan production
urban phenomenom based on widely available labor; specific skills/training that exceeded farming ability on the homefront; handicraft system using tools and human power only
gang system
type of slave labor characterized by large numbers of slaves performing the same repetitive task while being closely monitored; had to meet expectation of work; stereotyptical slave image in the cotton fields
fictive kin
the creation of family members in the surrounding slave community to compensate for possible familial separation; all older men and women referred to as "uncle" and "auntie"
manufactory
work formerly completed in the home or workshop moves under one roof; still handicraft industry
Fall River or Rhode Island system
Slater-style mills, with <200 employees and entire families hired for MULE spinning
Waltham or Lowell system
intergrated RING spinning mills with 1000-1200 mostly female employees who are daughters of farmers who no longer need to spin at home, so they work at these mills and live in boarding houses
industrial time discipline
employers reserved the right to determine the length of the workday; hours based on factory clock and bell before clocks were in the home
Westward Expansion
movement into the Oregon country and Mexican territory for independentn economic success and expansion of markets
Overland Trail
Midwest to West Coast from Independence MO across the Great Plains in wagon trains; other than gold rushers, mostly families with kinship ties travelled west together
"free men"
plank in the Republican Party platform referring to the abolition of slavery
Puritans
this religious group left the persecution of the Church of England in hopes of creating a successful society based on their morals and practices; Massachusetts Bay Company and a charter for N. England
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's 1863 declaration that all slaves held in rebellious states were free from bondage
debt peonage
freed slaves confined by their lack of skills and funds forced to enter tenant farming contracts with former owners; instead of rent, landlords collected farm products
draft riots
result of the Draft Act 1863 which declared that men must
1) go get shot
2) send a substitute
3) pay $300
Gettysberg troops show up
producer ideology
4 components
1) "producing classes"
2) "wage slavery"
3) call for mutualistic society
4) dunuciation of competition
Knights of Labor
created by Uriah Stevens as a Philly garment worker based on producer ideology; secretive and allowing all producers
subsistence agriculture
characteristic of Puritan colonial settlers, this consists of raising crops for the specific purpose of sustenance in the family unit
overseer
controlled laboring slaves in the absence of their owner
self help
1840s affects both apprentices learn and feed the snootiness of Protestant
bound labor
most often slavery, when a worker is compelled to do whatever their owner demands, often without wages and for a long period of time
redemptioners
aka indentured servants
mechanicks
aka artisan craftsmen
handicraft production
artisan craftwork using tools and manpower for one person to create an entire good
domestic manufacturing
isolated settlements created everything needed for survival; starts outside the market system using bartering
task system
small groups of slaves with supervision had specific amounts of work to complete in a day or a week with personal time afterwards
outwork sytsem
aka "given out" where work from shops is sent to a domestic location to be completed, allowing women and children to earn money
price lists
union tool to secure wages
nativism
native supremacy movement, prevent suffrage or immigration of foreigners
"old" immigrants
German and Irish
10 hour movement
effort to reduce the workday to a ten hour maximum, like in Massachusetts, through union efforts
Mexican American War
1846-48 gives Texas to West Coast to the US for developing purposes
"Free Labor, Free Soil"
Republican platform, including abolition and the homestead act
Dred Scott case
Scott declared property and not a citizen capable of bringing suit for freedom and proves Missouri Compromise unconsitutional according to Taney
central shop
merchants provide raw materials and contract artisans to do specific jogs under supervision of shop keeper
Reconstruction
1865-77 attempt to restructure the nation with effors like military occupation of the south, new state constitutions, and Freedmens Bureau, ends with economic depression and Hayes election
slavery
bound labor
artisan household
master, journeymen, apprentices, wife and family living and working together under assumption of mutual obligation
National Labor Union
1866-1875 8 hour movement, introduce term "wage slavery," bring together industrial and craft
Tom Scott
president of Penn railroad, back room deal for Southern Democrat electoral votes welcoms Rutherford B. Hayes to office
Rutherford B. Hayes
withdraws troops from South upon election 1877, effectively ending Reconstruction
Abraham Lincoln
helps to rush south secession, civil war president, emacipation proclamation
"Gum Sann"
Gold Mountains, the dream that California was filled with wealth that one could just grab and be content for life
degredation of the trade
removal of high artisan status by introducing women, children, former slaves and immigrants into the craft labor force who could operate machines that produced cheap versions of goods