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70 Cards in this Set

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what nuclei are involved in the promotion of alert & conscious state?
rostral intralaminar nuclei
midline thalamic nuclei
Tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN)
Orexin neurons
Suprachiastmatic nucleus
Dorsal raphe nucleus
Locu coeruleus
Ventral tegmental area
Pedunculopontine nucleus
lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus
Reticular nucleus
what does damage to the rostral pontomesencephalic cholinergic nuclei cause?
COMA
what type of actions are the rostral pontomesencephalic nuclei responsible for?
behavioral and cognitive arousal
What NT does TMN release? why?
Histamine
maintains alert state of cortex and regulates activity in the thalamus and brainstem
What nucleus inhibits the VLPO?
TMN by releasing Histamine
Where are Orexin neurons found?
Posterior lateral hypothalamus
what does the release of Orexin promote?
Orexin neurons are promoting wakefulness by releasing Orexin onto the cortex, and increasing activity of pontomesencephalic reticular nuclei
what is the NT released by the VLPO?
GABA
What is the function of VLPO?
to promote sleep by inhibiting the TMN, orexin neurons, and pontomesencephalic reticular nuclei
what are the pontomesencephalic reticular nuclei?
Rostral intralaminar & midline thalamic nuclei
TMN
VLPO
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
where does the suprachiasmatic nucleus receive input from?
retina
what is the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus?
circadian clock
projects to hypothalamic nuclei
Ventral lateral preoptic nucleus
Where is the dorsal raphe nuclei found?
midbrain
where do the diffuse projections from dorsal raphe nuclei go?
thalamus
cortex
what NT does dorsal raphe nuclei release?
Serotonin (5HT)
in the awake state is the activity of dorsal raphe nuclei high or low?
HIGH activity
in the REM sleep state is the activity of dorsal raphe nuclei high or low?
LOW activity
what NT does dorsal raphe nuclei release?
Serotonin
what NT does Locus coerulus release?
Norepinephrine
where does Locus coerulus project to?
Cortex
what is the function of the release of NE from locus coerulus?
regulates arousal, attention, and mood
when is Locus coerulus the most active?
HIgh activity in awake state
Low activity in REM sleep
where is dopamine released from in the pontomesencephalic reticular formation?
ventral tegmental area
what NT do Pedunculopontine and lateral dorsal tegmental nuclei release?
ACh
where do PPT and LDT project to in order to release ACh?
intralaminar nuclei
what is the function of the release of ACh in the sleep-wake cycle?
regulates excitability of sensory relay nuclei in the awake state
inhibited during slow wave sleep
ACTIVE during REM sleep
what NT does the reticular nucleus release?
GABA
what is the function of the reticular nucleus?
regulates excitability of other thalamic nuclei
what nuclei are active in promoting the awake state? what NT are being released?
TMN: histamine
Locus coerulus: NE
LDT: ACh
PPT: ACh
Raphe: 5-HT
VLPO: is inhibted
Orexin neurons: Orexin
describe the EEG of an awake person?
desynchronized and low amplitude
describe the EEG of a person in Non-REM sleep?
high amplitude and low frequency
Is there any perception of external sensory input during non-REM sleep?
NO
what is the activity of the thalamus during non-REM sleep?
thalamus reverts back to intrinsic oscillatory bursting mode
has lost excitatory input
what stage of sleep may sleep walking occur in?
STAGE 4 of NON-REM
when is the least amount of brain activity recorded during the sleep cycle?
STAGE 4 of non-REM
describe the active NT being released during non-REM sleep.
VLPO is releasing GABA to inhibit TMN from releasing histamine, and is blocking the excitatory input to LDT, PPT, LE, Raphe nuclei
describe the EEG in a REM sleep.
almost identical to waking brain
is the brain active or inactive during REM sleep?
brain is highly active, especially the motor cortex
rapid eye movements occur
what NT are active during REM sleep?
Locus coerulus: is inhibited
Raphe nuclei: inhibited
PPT & LDT: Disinhibited
describe the activity of the NT when REM is being offset
Locus coerulus: NE activity is increased
PPT & LDT: ACh release is inhibited
with the disinhibition of the LDT/PPT what does this produce during REM sleep?
excitation of the thalamus
inhibition of muscles except the diaphragm and eye movements
how are REM generated?
the PPRF is activated in the pons sending signals to the superior colliculus
what is the main NT of the awake state? what is it released by?
Histamine
TMN
what other NT are being released and promoting arousal?
PPT & LDT: ACh
Locus coerulus: NE
Raphe Nuclei: Serotonin
what is the main NT being released in non-rem sleep?
GABA
VLPO
what is the activity of other NT that promote arousal during non-REM sleep?
PPT & LDT: Ach low
Locus Coeruleus: NE low
Raphe nuclei: Serotonin low
what is the activity of NT during REM-onset?
Locus coeruleus: NE inhibted
Raphe nuclei: 5 HT inhibited
PPT & LDT: ACh disinhibited (active)
what is the activity of NT during REM-offset?
Locus coeruleus: NE increased
PPT & LDT: ACh inhibited
how is insomnia treated?
varies from behavioral modifications to drugs
why do we sleep?
growth/repair/recovery
exercise brain circuits
memory consolidation
what may be a trigger in the nervous system for sleep?
buildup of adenosine in the brain
what blocks signals from adenosine in the brain?
Caffeine
SO WE CAN STAY AWAKE AND STUDY
why is restless leg syndrome a problem?
need to move legs in response impairs sleep
what may be involved in restless leg syndrome?
basal ganglia dysfunction
which can be treated with dopamine antagonist
what are some characteristics of Narcolepsy?
enter REM sleep directly from waking state
excessive daytime sleepiness
dreamlike hallucinations
loss of muscle tone in awake state
Cataplexy
loss of muscle tone in awake state
when is the typical onset of Narcolepsy?
in adolescence or early adulthood
what is thought to be the cause of Narcolepsy in humans?
loss of orexin producing neurons in hypothalamus
-neurodegenerative or autoimmune
what is the function of orexin neurons?
project widely and promote wakefulness, primarily by effects on histaminergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic systems
what is sleep apnea?
disorder in which the patient stops breathing during sleep for 10-20 seconds throughout the night --> brain senses low oxygen --> arouses patient
if a patient has obstructive sleep apnea how can it be treated?
special dental devices, CPAP, surgery to remove tonsils
what are some possible consequences of sleep apnea?
serious health problems due to lack of restful sleep
increased risk of heart disease and stroke
what is the cause of central sleep apnea?
malfunction in brainstem circuits controlling breathing
what type of respiration is observed in central sleep apnea?
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
-can you match brainstem lesion to type of respiration
Descrive REM Sleep Behavioral disorder.
loss of skeletal muscle atonia during REM
acting out dreams
injury to self or others
what are the possible etiologies of RSBD?
neurological disorder including tumors, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease
what may RSBD be indicative of?
may precede development of other symptoms of degenerative disease
what can RSBD be treated with?
Clonazepam which increases GABA inhibition
what is responsible for generation fo rapid eye movement and visual imagery in dreams during REM sleep?
phasic cholinergic activity in the thalamus, PGO waves, ponto-geniculo-occipital
what activates circuits suppressing large muscle activity during REM sleep?
Cholinergic inputs from LDT & PPT nuclei