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57 Cards in this Set

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Azthreonam
PNCase resistant Cell Wall antibiotic
G- aerobes
Vancomycin
D-alanine inhibition
MRSA & C Difficile
Ototoxicity & Redman Syndrome
Resistance emerging-
blamed on Abs in cow feed
LAC operon
usually off
repressor bound
inducer binds repressor &
removes inhibition
TRP operon
usually on
co-repressor binds inactive repressor to stop transcription
Tetracyclines-
names & MOA
Doxy, Demeclo, Mino, Tetra
30s subunit
blocks tRNA
also chelates, actively transported into cell
Tetracyclines-
Use
Chlamydia
Mycoplasma Pneumonia
Lyme
Acne (G+)
Cholera & H Influenza (G-)
Rickettsiae (amoeba)
Tetracyclines-
contraindications
pregnancy (fetal hepatotoxicity)
children (teeth/bones)
renal impaiment (except Doxy & Mino excreted via bile)
Aminoglycosides-
names & MOA
Amikacin, Gentamicin, Neomycin, Netilmicin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin
binds 30s subunit
inhibits respiration
stops translation at initiation phase
misreading of mRNA
Aminoglycosides-
Use
G- aerobes & bacilli & rods
UTI w/E coli
P aeruginosa-w/ Piper & Ticar
TB- streptomycin
Aminoglycosides-
Side effects
Ototoxicity especially w/loop diuretics
Macrolides-
Names & MOA
Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin
binds irreversibly to 50s
blocks formation of initiation complex, stops protein synthesis (by inhibiting translocase)
Macrolides-
Use
Erythromycin- PCN allergy
Clarithromycin- also covers
H influenz & Chlamydia
Azithromycin- URI specific
esp H Influenz
Clindamycin- anaerobic orgs (drug of choice)
Chloramphenicol
binds 50s inhibits peptidyl transferase
SE: Gray Baby Syndrome (b/c glucouronidation is poor in babies & alcoholics), aplastic anemia, BM suppression
G+ & G- many anaerobes, chlamydia & rickettsia
Clindamycin
similar to macrolides
50s
primarily for anaerobic
C Diff is ALWAYS resistant
SEs: diarrhea, pseudomonas colitis
Linezolid
50s interferes with formation of fMET tRNA-mRNA complex (blocks initiation)
MRSA & VRE
SEs: thrombocytopenia, increase hepatic enzymes, MAO inhibitor (increase BP)
Synercid
IV administration
binds 50s constricts exit channel & stops translation
MRSA, VREF
SEs: rash, myalgia, arthralgia, pseudomembranous colitis, hyperbilirubinnemia
TET Protein
mechanism of resistance against tetracyclin-
TET A causes efflux of drug
resistance against aminoglycosides
b/c decreased O2 dependent transport
plasmid synthesis of enzymes
CAM acetyltransferase
resistance mechanism against Chloramphenicol
resistance for_______
Organisms causing nosocomial infections
Staph Epidermidis
MRSA- vancomycin
E Coli & F Klebsiella- (extended spectrum beta lactams)
rotavirus, influenza
Organisms that make biofilm
(slime)
P Aeruginosa & S epidermidis
exopolysaccharide makes slime
inhibits oxidative burst
difficult for ABs to penetrate
Found on catheters & other foreign bodies
Progression of nosocomial infection
Days 1-5 community pathogen
after day 5 G- rod & MRSA
finally nonfermenting G- rods
(acinetobacter, pseudomonas)
& VRE
Typical reservoirs for nosocomial infections
Fungi & Legionella- construction
TB- patients w/unsuspected infection
virus- pt to staff
virus & method of contracting nosocomial infections
Hand washing- rotavirus & infl
needlestick- Hep B & C, HIV
repeated draws from saline
- Hep C
Contaminated lancets- Hep B
Organ transplant- west nile
Plasmids
found in E coli
Phages
botulism, diphtheria, scarlet fever
common pili
(in G- bacteria) Gonorrhea, E coli, Bordelo Pertussis
important for conjugation
adhesins here
M protein
antigenic protein in pili of S Pyogene (GAS)
Hyaluronidase
Strep, Staph, Clostridia
for invasion
Collagenase
Clostridia
Neuramidase
affects epis in gut mucosa
Shigella Dysenteriae & Vibrio Cholera
siderophores
binds iron after hemolysins lyse RBC
coagulase
phagocyte evasion
Staph (gives boils/abscesses)
Capsular pollysaccharides
S Pneumo
K Pneumo
Anthrax
H Influenza (B)
Yersinia Pestis
Strep Mutans
SKAbYS
Fibronectin
inhibits complement binding to Treponema Pallidum (syphilis)
Hyaluronic Acid
inhibits complement bindindg of GAS (looks like CT matrix)
IgA
Inhibits complement binding on Streptococci & Campylobacter
Surface Slime
P Aeruginosa
O Antigen
E Coli- associated with LPS
Leukocidins
cause polis to release granules & kill themselves
Staphylococci
Inhibition of Phagolysosome fusion
TB, M Leprae, Toxoplasma, Chlamydia
Catalase Antioxident
some staph
Bug that inhibits phagocyte function via release of cAMP
Bordello Pertussis
Bugs that inhibit chemotaxis
Streptococcal streptolysin, TB, Clostridium Toxin
CT(x)Ss
Evasion of Host Defenses via gene rearrangement
Salmonella- flagellin
H1 & H2- determined by promoter
Neisseria- 7 silent loci
Borrelia Recurrentis-
storage plasmid (don't lose information)
Types of exotoxins
Cytotoxins
Neuroactive
Enterotoxins
found with G+ bacteria
Toxin associated with Diphtheria
A-B toxin
ribosylates EF-2 & inhibits protein synth
A domain is catalytic
B domain is binding sensitivity
Toxin associated with Staph Aureus
Alpha toxin (membrane active)
causes death b/c loss of K+
toxin associated with clostridium perfringes
alpha toxin (membrane active)
hydrolyses phospharylchlorine
Botulism Toxin
blocks release of ACh-
respiratory arrest & paralysis
Tetanus Toxin
prevents release of inhibitory NT
rigid muscle contractions
Cholera Toxin
B subunit binds ganglioside receptors on GI epis
A ribosylates Gs
increases cAMP
stim CFTR R
massive outflow water & electrolytes
Pertussis Toxin
ribosylates Gi
blocks inhibition of cAMP
increase PKC
activate CFTR R in lungs
Shigellosis Toxin
Highly contagious
binds Gb3 glycolipid R
internalized
deadenylate 30s subunit
blocks protein synthesis
epis die
spreads internally via M cells in peyers patches
Enterocolitis
C Difficile
A recognizes carbohydrate on apex of epi
rounding of epis,
lose water into GI lumen
Pt on ABs may be assymptomatic carriers
Psuedomembranous colitis
necrotic tissue
yellowish membrane that peels
Endotoxin
LPS on outermembrane of G-
O Antigen is species specific
Lipid A is toxic moiety of LPS
can cause endotoxic shock, hypotension, DIC