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36 Cards in this Set

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intermediate/andesitic
a compositional group of igneous rocks, indicating that the rock contains at least 25% dark silicate minerals. The other dominant mineral is plagioclase feldspar
aphanitic texture
a texture of igneous rocks in which the crystals are too small for individual minerals to be distinguished without the aid of a microscope
assmilation
in igneous activity, the process of incorporating country rock into a magma body
mafic/basaltic
a compositional group of igneous rocks indicating that the rock contains substantial dark silicate minerals and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar
Bowen's reaction series
A concept produced by N.L.Bowen that illustrates the relationships between magma and the minerals crystallizing from it during the formation of igneous rocks
crystallization
the formation and growth of a crystalline solid from a liquid or gas
crystal settling
during the crystallization of magma, the earlier-formed minerals are denser than the liquid portion and settle to the bottom of the magma chamber
decompression melting
melting that occurs as rock ascends due to a drop in confining pressure
extrusive
igneous activity that occurs at Earth's surface
felsic/granitic
a compositional group of igneous rocks indicating the rock is composed almost entirely of light-colored silicates
fragmental texture
an igneous rock texture resulting from the consolidation of individual rock fragments that are ejected during a violent volcanic eruption
geothermal gradient
the fradual increase in tempature with depth in the crust
glass
naturally, produced when molten lava cools too rapidly to permit recrystallization. The volcanic form is a solid composed of unordered atoms
glassy texture
a term used to describe the texture or certain igneous rocks, such as obsidian, that contain no crystals
groundmass
the matrix of smaller crystals within an igneous rock that has porphyritic texture
igneous rocks
rock formed from the crystallization of magma
intrusive
igneous rock that formed below Earth's surface
lava
magma that reaches Earth's surface
magma
a body of molton rock found at depth, including any dissolved gases and crystals
magma mixing
the process of altering the composition of a magma through the mixing of material from another magma body
magmatic differentiation
the process of generating more than one rock type from a single magma
melt
the liquid portion of magma excluding the solid crystals
partial melting
the process by which most igneous rocks melt. Since individual minerals have different melting points, most igneous rocks melt over a temperature range of a few hundred degrees. If the liquid is squeesed out after some melting has occured, a melt with a higher silica content results
pegmatite
a very course-grained igneous rock (typically granite) commonly found as a dike associated with a large mass of plutonic rock that has smaller crystals. Crystallization in a water-rich environment is believed to be responsible for the very large crystals.
pegmatitic texture
a texture of igneous rocks in which the interlocking crystals are all larger than one centimeter in diameter
phaneritic texture
an igneous rock texture in which the crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough so the individual minerals can be identified without the aid of a microscope
phenocryst
conspicously large crystal embedded in a matrix of finer-grained crystals
plutonic
igneous rocks that form at depth
porphyritic texture
an igneous rock texture charactorized by two distinctly different crystal sizes
porphyry
an igneous rock with a porphyritic texture
pyroclastic texture
an igneous rock texture resulting from the consolidation of individual rock fragments that are ejected during a violent volcanic eruption
texture
the size, shape, and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute a rock
ultramafic
a compositional group of igneous rocks containing mostly olivine and pyroxene
vesicular texture
a term applied to aphanitic igneous rocks that contain many small cavaties
volatiles
gaseous components of magma dissolved in the melt; readily vaporize at surface pressures
volcanic
pertaining to the activities, structures, or rock types of a volcano