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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Todoro (1989)
Education and Development
(on Returns)
Fundamental conflict: Private and Social ROR are inversely related
As qualifications increase,
wage inequality increases
demand driven expensive unemployment insurance
Warns against overeducation
Todoro (1989)
Education and Development
(on Ed & Dev)
Education and Development
Fertility: will decrease with girls ed, but must have jobs
Inequality/Poverty: who benefits (tertiary subsidies, etc), OCs,
Rural dev: to lessen inequality, also focus on health, nutrition, curriculum
internal: rural to urban
External:Brain drain, focus on local issues (ex. Tropical disease), tax foreign earnings
Feinberg & Soltis on Functionalism
Role differentiation/Solidarity
Schooling plays role formerly played by family (skills more complex), vital part of transition from family to adult member of society
Stages: traditional (static), transitional to modernity, modern
Dreeben (1968- On What is Learned in School)
(from F & S)
Four norms give psychological capacity to function & occupy social position
Universality: everyone judged by same standard
Specificity: grouped for comparison
Achievement: judged according to performance, not intention
Independence: you are accountable for own actions
Why moved from ascribed to achieved status?
1. family skills obsolete
2. expanded need for talent means need to expand pool
3. ascribed leads to instability
Functionalist Role of schools:
Political socialization (loyalty to larger group)
Modernization: individualism, meritocratic beliefs, hc
(Inkeles & Smith; McClelland; Eisenstadt)
Critiques of Functionalism
Merton (20th C. American)
focus on status quo,
manifest (intended and recognized) & latent (not recognized) functions
social function v. individual needs
Anthony Giddens (l. 20th C. British)
Individual actors, agency
Power relations (for whom latent, and for whom manifest?)
Porter & Sheppard (1998)
Pre-Industrial revolution: mercantilism (exports > imports, precious metals)
Industrial Revolution: Smith (tech skills w/which labor applied), Malthus, Ricardo (FT/specialization)
Marx: socio/political
Modernization: Rostow
Structural Functionalism
Parsons, McClelland, Eisenstadt (modernizing elites)
Critiques of Modernization (P&S, 1998)
Doesn’t explain:
Status quo/historical
which functions are productive/dysfunctional
how happened, why endogenous to Europe
Sobel (1982) Impetus for HC (3)
Cold war rivalry/Sputnik (Russian model: early testing – gov’t subsidies)
Desire to develop 3rd world/3rd world desire to speed development
Marshall plan failure
HC approaches (Sobel, 1982)
Correlational (pdn function)
Manpower/Education forecasting
HC appeal (Sobel, 1982)
HC Appeals to:
Microeconomists (numbers)
Liberals (equity)
Conservatives (econ. Growth)
HC prevails despite criticisms
Externalities not included, so returns are underestimated
Rate of Return studies
(Sobel, 1982)
ROR studies
Easy criterion
Huge data problems
Psacharopoulos 5 generalizations
Psacharopoulos 5 ROR generalizations
1. Primary highest
2. HC > PC
3. Developing > developed
4. Migrators > non-migrators
5. HE most expensive
ROR by field
High: Engineering, Dentistry, Business, Economics
Med: Humanities, Law, Physical Sciences
Low: Teaching, Agronomy, Agriculture
Correlational Studies
Galeson & Pyatt (ILO)
Dev 1951-1961 50+ countries
HE enrollments with income productivity
Low explanatory power, but still used as rationale
Residual approach
Residual approach:
Use GNP or P/C income
Solow (1950s)
Denison (42% of US growth 1929-1957 from HC)
Not used much – data restrictions
Manpower Planning
Manpower Planning
Parnes (OSU 1962)
Rapid Growth in 1950s show need for engineering, scientific manpower
Set growth target, gives needed productivity increase & manpower needs
Account for deaths, etc. gives need for schools, teachers, etc.
Combinations of methodology studies (2)
Combinations of methodology:
Bowles looking at Nigeria (max CB)
Adelman looking at Argentina (max national income)
Critiques of HC
Critiques of HC
Blaug (1976)
Bowen (1964)
Schaeffer (1961)
Jencks (1972)
Dependency Theorists
Why didn’t HC work?
Too much expansion
Spending on Higher, Secondary to detriment of primary
High ROR fields cut costs lowers quality and places,
Students shift to lower ROR fields as consequence
Manpower planning is overly optimistic
Overeducation, bloated public sector, instability, external migration