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41 Cards in this Set

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SHARP (2002)
The Sacrificed Generation
Youth, History and the Colonized Mind in Madagascar
Military conscription WWI, WWII
SMOTIG - forced labor (20-46)
Disregard for cult burial pract
conscription leads to ind. mov't
French (mis) readings
personal annectdotes
VAVRUS (2002)
Uncoupling the Articulation betweeen Girls Education and Tradition in Tanzania
1920-'45 fluid meaning of "trad"
Policy documents are discourse
Ethnohistorical: position of author, institution, inclusions/omissions
"depolyment" of tradition
girls ed articulations: mission/colony/Chagga
"timid tribeswoman" v. enrollment records
Colony girls ed & work ethic (need laborers)
meanings of "tradition"
SACHS (2005)
The end of poverty
Unequal growth Afr(.7)US (1.7)
1800-2000 inequal 4:1 to 20:1
Reviews Rostow
UK conditions:
Coal, Open, Science, Geography
IR changes:
agr to ind, gender roles, div of labor
WWI allows for Lenin (detour)
Spread of econ prosperity
JANSEN (2005) Targeting Education
Targets are:
constructions of consensus
method (data)
organizational (no infrastr)
validity (concept meaning)
Quotes Samoff: odd man out
Problems of high stakes tests
3 Flaws?
Transnational Advocacy, Global Civil Society? Emerging Evidence from the Field of Education
Quote Jones Hegemony of WB
Int'l arch construct ed "needs"
Trans adv net, soc mvt (TAN,TSM)
New forms (Global Camp for Ed)
Development chooses ed as venue in 90s
Development chooses
Constructing Consensus and EFA
Main factors of standardization:
Resource Dependence:
Donors,co-directing, bridging means common norms
International Development Field (grow, legitimate)
WB: new study
UNICEF: expand
UNESCO: credibility
Standardization of mass ed
The Politics of Education Policy Borrowing
US/UK in 80s
Not sucess/fail but similarities of systems
Quote Chubb & Moe (US follow UK)
Quote Phillips:
What is pol, inst, socio-cult "acceptable" policy
Political symbolism
Short term solutions
PHILLIPS & OCHS (2003)Processes of Policy Borrowing in Education: Some Explanatory Analytical Devices
Four stages:
Attraction (impulse/externalise)
Ex. UK attraction for German
Quotes Sadler: outside schools
Context of target&home country
How effect stages
four stages
SPREEN (2004) Appropriating Borrowed Policies: Outcomes Based Education in South Africa
South African context: transitional,rapid chg (globlzn)
Conceal int'l origin preconditn
Controversy: origins & relevance
Competing & vague definitions
Vague defs used sppt status quo
3 stages:
External transaction:
circulate models, buzzwords, attend conferences
Pol. manip: self-legitimate
Ownership (becomes remade)
Transitional Society/Legitimizing
Math, sci
HE coverage/life-long learning
Teach train/profztn
Decentralization of decision mkg
Bartlett (2005)
Freire - NE Brazil
Policy invoked F, but Ts hadn't read much
Non-critical dialogue-friendship strategy
NGO encourages "not speaking above students' level" (adapted education?)
Freire critique: dichotomous, non-relational
Arnove (1980)
Need to look at world system
Import of "cultural goods" by third world
International organizations manipulate agenda (foundations: Carnegie, Ford, Rockefeller/orgs: WB, Oecd, etc.)
Freire (1994 reprint) Pedagogy of the Oppressed
50-1965 (exile)
Partnership T/S
Banking Ed
Reality from communication
preventing individual from engaging in process of inquiry is violence
McGinn (1996) Education, Democracy and Globalization: Challenges for Comparative Ed
Crit of SAPs
Decrease in civil society b/c:
Increase in gov't by NGos, non-elected advisors
Checkbook participation
Decrease partic in associations
McGinn (1996) Education, Democracy and Globalization: Challenges for Comparative Ed
Why education isn't solving:
Teaching about democracy, not doing it
too competitive (testing)
McGinn (1996) Education, Democracy and Globalization: Challenges for Comparative Ed
Transnationals decr nat'l loyalty
Incr privtzatn those who can opt out
values from global media
Decr in other knowledge sources (social-friends, etc.)
We're all in front of computers
McGinn (1996) Education, Democracy and Globalization: Challenges for Comparative Ed
On Democracy & Econ dev:
EAsia: suspension of dem for dev
Part in PubAffairs not corr with GNP
Need to deconstruct "national" identity (by language 200 Cos become 5000)
Family Economics and Macro Behavior
Family Economics
Capital is spent on child rearing, personal consumption, transfer to children
Social Sec sys decr demand for children
HC stock in US is 50-90%
intergenerational transfers of wealth:
poor underinvest in children (large families, unstable marriages, no bequests)
Rich invest in children(small family, bequests)
poverty persists b/c lack of bequests
Regression to the mean: poor earn more than previous gen, rich earn less
Birdsall & Sabot (1998) Inequality as a Constraint on Growth in Latin America
EA/LA comparison
EA/LA comparison:
High Equal,growth
Export focus so labor demand
Seek legit thru: housing, land ref, high qual ed,
Maintain quality with expansion
LA: Low growth, high inequal
biased against exp, agri
Qual decrease with expansion
PPE: K350%up, M64%up
Birdsall & Sabot (1998) Inequality as a Constraint on Growth in Latin America
East Asia/Lating America contrast
Regression y = growth, variables = inequality, GDP, enrollments
Growth 8.2% higher for every SD of 25 year term
Brazil 17.2% more dev if Korea's inequality levels
Ed girls is cost effective: fertility down, enrollments down, PPE can up, can mtn quality
OCs to expensive for poor
Dreeben (1968- On What is Learned in School)
(from F & S)
Four norms (USAI) give psychological capacity to function & occupy social position
Universality: everyone judged by same standard
Specificity: grouped for comparison
Achievement: judged according to performance, not intention
Independence: you are accountable for own actions
Banfield (1970)
Cultural impediments theorist
Motivation & class
Low live moment to moment
Rich forward planning
Difficult for schools to change
Talcott Parsons (1959)
Social system in equilibrium, change stresses system, new equilibrium
With new equilibrium new roles, more & more complexity/differentiation
Lewis (1954)
Shares Nobel with Schultz in ‘79
Dual model
Traditional(inefficient, labor surplus)/modern(efficient-mechanized)
Modern hire at just above subsistence, modern expands, absorbs trad. Surplus
Unifies neo-classical econ/modernization
Myrdal (1957)
Geographic dualism
Base for dependency, but focuses only on limits of neo-classical
Core/periphery is international and intranational
Multiplier effects remain local
Migratory, capital and trade flows exacerbate inequality
Schultz (1961)
Presidential address to Am Econ. Association
Free/low cost tuition, new institutions to offset OCs
Underdeveloped nations less likely to invest in HC
Schaeffer (U of Kansas - 1961)
Critique of Schultz/ROR/HC
Can’t liken humans to machines
Family spending on education is not all about income maximization
Bowen (1964)
Residual method based on unexplained
Unions, monopolies, credentialing not accounted for
Blaug (U of London - 1976)
Ss don’t consider future income (don’t have data)
ROR doesn’t explain supply in other countries
Jencks (1972)
22% of income is schooling rest is luck, on the job performance
Challenges potential of compensatory ed for wealth equalization
Herrnstein & Murray (1994)
The Bell Curve
Intellectual impediments theorists
Genetic inferiority based on IQ tests
Bernal (1997)rural Sudan
Islamic culture is seen as monolithic and static, global flows originate in West
Islamic cultural flows have been rendered invisible within the world system.
Globalization is homogenizing Islamic customs
As villagers migrate to cities or to Saudi Arabia, fundamentalism trickles down
New understandings of what it is to be Sudanese, Arab, Muslim
Women as ultimate consumers (no access to own capital, get through male family)
Islam is associated with West, not opposed to it
Tradition is constantly reinvented
Bernal (1997) rural Sudan
Heirarchical Tensions:
Formal schooling privileged over local knowledge
Scripturalist over local practice
Arab over African
Men over women
Escobar (1995)
Modernization of poverty
Problematization (Foucault, 1986)
Objectification of poor, creation of consumers
Escobar (1995)
Creation of experts (Normandy)
Associations with poor: vagrancy, frugality, promiscuity, refusal to accept social duties, ignorance
Normalizing tool
LA tabula rasa for application of Rostow
Lucrative industry (Rahnema, 1986)
Social reproduction of 3rd world as inferior
Escobar (1995)
Transformation of problems
Institutionalization/Professionalization no longer cultural but scientific
Regimes of truth (UN/lending orgs)
Discursive practice: who can speak, from what point of view, etc.
Othering (Bhaba, 1990) for discrimination, inferiority
Indigenous need to be modernized, women become invisible as producers
Kandel (1933)
historical functionalism, historiographic method (single country case studies), against wholesale transfer, intangible pol, econ, social forces outside school, student of Sadler, 10 languages, National unit of analysis
Durkheim (late 19th century)
Society as organism, father of sociology, functionalism, schools function to teach: social solidarity, division of labor, social rules
Sir Michael Sadler
early 20th century, British
Things outside schools matter more than things inside (1900)
Noah& Eckstein (1969)
Towards a Science of Comparative Education
cross-national comparative data to test hypotheses, outcomes in terms of student achievement
Clayton (1998)
Core nations manipulate education in periphery nations to serve own interests, mov't of real/symbolic capital and educational ideology and aid (supporting capitalist ideologies)