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52 Cards in this Set

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JOB LOSSES
metalworking, furniture and textile plants.
"he hid himself in the fire which refines them."
Purg.
"he hid himself in the fire which refines them."
Purg.
--
Poi s'ascose nel foco che gli affina.
Purgatorio.
CHOMSKY

DEEP GRAMMAR
“deep grammar”. Born with linguistic template in brain: set of rules.Allows children to learn a language quickly. Imposes constraints and structure on what is learnt. ... children make systematic mistakes indicating tendency to impose rules on what turn out to be grammatical exceptions (“I dided it” vs “I did it”). Children of migrant workers invent new languages (creoles) out of the grammatically incoherent pidgin spoken by parents.
11th, 14th-and 15th-century heirs of the troubadours
The early European vernacular poets in the Romance languages: 11th-century troubadours like Arnaut Daniel, who wrote in Provençal;
14th-and 15th-century like Dante, Cavalcanti and Villon. From them he drew the convictions with which he challenged the romantic (or realist) assumption that emotion and form had become
virtual opposites.
LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST
King Ferdinand
Berowne,
Longaville,
Dumaine.
DAMASIO
Two key ideas here are: (1) A person is a "nested triad" of mind in brain, and brain in body. (2) In the background there is always a story
of natural selection about the evolution of this triadic structure.
DEEP GRAMMAR
“deep grammar”.
linguistic template in the brains.
systematic mistakes
creole from pidgins.
TORAH

PENTATEUCH
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy.
ARA VOS PREC
"Ara vos prec per aquella valor que vos guida al som de l'esalina, sovenha vos a temps de ma dolor.
Poi s'ascose nel foco che gli affina."
(Dante).
APOPHATIC
Kataphatic prayer employs thoughts and images while apophatic transcends.
RECURSION IN LANGUAGE
Sequences of one-syllable words were called out by human voices. random words male followed by female voices. were able to recognise the simple rule. In the next test, the grammatical rule dictated that the male voice could call out one, two or three words, as long as the female voice did the same. This type of slightly more complex pattern is called recursive, as it involves a rule within a rule. This time, the monkeys were unable to recognise any breaks in the pattern. But twelve human volunteers given the same test had no such difficulty, although most were unable to explain what the rule actually was.
ANTHONY DULL
Anthony Dull
Costard (a philosopher at the academy)
Don Adriano de Armado, an extremely loyal philosopher.
Armado's servant Moth.
Jaquenetta.
KATHERINE
Katharine, Maria, and Rosaline.
Boyet.
BASE CASE

RECURSION STEP
Recursive definition of a person's ancestors:
* One's parents are one's ancestors (base case);
* The parents of any ancestor are also ancestors of the person under consideration (recursion step).
FUNCTIONAL BRAIN IMAGES
Functional brain images (PET & fMRI] are hybrid epistemic
objects. They are fairly realistic pictures of brains
produced by imaging technologies that allow us to “see” the brain in
action. In this regard, they can appear to be visual evidence in a
fairly straight-forward sense. On the other hand, these images are produced through the detection of non-optical properties and are the
product of several layers of complex mathematical and statistical processing. Considered in this way, they are better thought of as
graphical displays of essentially non-visual, statistical data. This
paper examines how their hybrid nature affects the epistemic status of these images.
EPIGONI
the Epigoni march on Thebes to rectify the earlier deaths of the seven.
"Stoops to conquer and kneels to rise"
DRYDEN
LINGUISTIC TEMPLATE
The linguistic template is a set of rules that allows children to learn a language quickly, but also imposes constraints and structure on what is learnt.
LINGUISTIC TEMPLATE
Imposes constraints and structure on what is learnt.
RECURSION
Sequences of one-syllable words called out by human voices. random words male followed by female voices. were able to recognise the simple rule. In the next test, the grammatical rule dictated that the male voice could call out one, two or three words, as long as the female voice did the same. This type of slightly more complex pattern is called recursive, as it involves a rule within a rule. This time, the monkeys were unable to recognise any breaks in the pattern. But twelve human volunteers given the same test had no such difficulty, although most were unable to explain what the rule actually was.
ISHMAEL EFFECT
the standard problem facing relativism – that it is unable to explain why the critical story it tells does not equally apply to itself – deftly named the “Ishmael effect” by David Stove, in honour of the narrator of Hermann Melville's novel Moby Dick who recounts the terrible sinking of a ship but who, mysteriously, somehow manages to survive to tell the tale.
"...to represent the ebb and flow of the ..., the quasi-erotic excitement of ..., and the
psychodynamics of ...."
"found himself experimenting with how best to represent the ebb and flow
of the unconscious, the quasi-erotic excitement of killing, and the
psychodynamics of demagoguery."
if it proved a monster, who denies, but that it was justly burnt, or sunk into the sea?
no envious Juno sat cross-legged over the
nativity of any man's intellectual offspring; but if it proved a monster, who denies, but that it was justly burnt, or sunk into the sea?
Constant practice devoted to one subject often outdoes both intelligence and skill.
* assiduus usus uni rei deditus et ingenium et artem saepe vincit.* (M.Tullius Cicero).
faux documentary
faux documentary
A small --- --- in inate ability becomes a pretty large disparity when one looks at the '--- ---' of the--- --- ---.
a small statistical difference in inate ability, which becomes a pretty large disparity when one looks at the 'high end' of the respective distribution curves.
The children of --- --- invent new languages known as --- out of the --- ---- ---- spoken by their parents.
the children of migrant workers invent new languages known as creoles out of the grammatically incoherent pidgin spoken by their parents.
Functional brain images (PET & fMRI] are hybrid epistemic
objects.
They can appear to be visual evidence in a fairly straight-forward sense. On the other hand, these images are produced through the detection of non-optical properties and are the product of several layers of complex mathematical and statistical processing. Considered in this way, they are better thought of as
graphical displays of essentially non-visual, statistical data. This
paper examines how their hybrid nature affects the epistemic status of these images.
LINGUISTIC TEMPLATE
imposes constraints and structure on what is learnt.
RELATIVISM

the standard problem facing relativism –
that it is unable to explain why the critical story it tells does not equally apply to itself
THE CURVE
Dr. Friedman gave an analogy: "Imagine the average I.Q. was 100 and that 5 percent of the population had an I.Q. of 140 or greater and were
considered to be geniuses. Now let's say that education improves and the average I.Q. increases to 107 and 10 percent of the population has an I.Q. of above 140.
"You could present the data in two ways," he said. "You could say that the average I.Q. is up seven points or you could say that because of
improved education the number of geniuses has doubled."
He added, "The whole obesity debate is equivalent to drawing conclusions
about national education programs by saying that the number of geniuses has doubled."
TROUBADOURS


TROUVERES
Lyric poets or poet-musicians of France in the 12th and 13th centuries. Poets working in the south of France, writing in Provencal (langue d'oc), are generally termed troubadours; those of the north, writing in French (langue d'oil), are called trouveres.
STROPHIC
Most troubadour songs are strophic, based on stanzaic patterns repeated throughout the song to the melody of the first verse in widely ranging schemes, always devised with a great awareness of technical accomplishment.
FOXP2.
FoxP2 mutatation associated with language problems in people. These people have largely normal motor coordination, but an inability to correctly pronounce words or form them into grammatically correct sentences.They have trouble understanding complex language.In both humans and birds the gene is expressed in the basal ganglia.
THE RED WHEELBARROW
So much depends
upon
a red wheel
barrow
glazed with rain
water
beside the white
chickens.
(William Carlos Williams).
OUGHT FROM IS
The view that an "ought" cannot be derived from an "is" was first put forward by David Hume and is known as Hume's law. Another version of it was formulated by the 20th century Cambridge philosopher G. E. Moore. The claim has been challenged by many philosophers on the grounds that moral deliberation cannot work in a factual vacuum.
POUCHITIS
Micro: ulcers with granulation tissue, cryptitis, crypt abscesses, patchy neutrophils in lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell mucin, decreased/no lymphoid follicles* *
PETRARCH
1374
PIACE AL MONDO E BREVE SOGNO
and shame is the fruit of my vanities,
and remorse, and the clearest knowledge
of how the world's delight is a brief dream.
(Petrarch).
THE CANZONIERE
OR
Rerum vulgarium fragmenta
Petrarch
POSTMODERNISM
The study of literature as a tradition, let alone as a ''canon,'' has in many places been deposed by an emphasis on deconstruction, postmodernism and the nouveau roman. The concept of authorship itself has come under scornful scrutiny, with the production of ''texts'' viewed more as a matter of social construct than as the work of autonomous individuals.
ONEIRIC
dreaming.
adj.
IAMB
IAMB (EYE-am) or IAMBUS, IAMBIC
The most common metrical foot in English, German, and Russian verse, and many other languages as well; it consists of two syllables, a short or unaccented syllable followed by a long or accented syllable, as in a-VOID or the RUSH, or from the opening line of John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale":

a DROW | -sy NUMB | -ness PAINS

Sidelight: The name of the iambic foot derives from the Greek iambos, a genre of invective poetry (now termed lampoon) with which it was originally associated.

(See also Meter, Rhythm)
FOOT
FOOT
A unit of rhythm or meter; the division in verse of a group of syllables, one of which is long or accented. For example, the line, "The boy | stood on | the burn | ing deck," has four iambic metrical feet.
CADENCE
CADENCE
The recurrent rhythmical pattern in lines of verse; also, the natural tone or modulation of the voice determined by the alternation of accented or unaccented syllables.

Sidelight: Cadence differs from meter in that it is not necessarily regular, but rather a more flexible concept of rhythm such as is characteristic of free verse and prose poetry.

(See also Accent, Ictus, Sprung Rhythm, Stress)
CATACHRESIS
CATACHRESIS (kata-KREE-sis)
Misuse or abuse of words; the use of the wrong word for the context, as atone for repent, ingenuous for ingenious, or a forced trope in which a word is used too far removed from its true meaning, as "melancholy table" or Milton's "blind mouth" in Lycidas.
CENTO
CENTO
Poetry made up of lines borrowed from a combination of established authors, usually resulting in a change in meaning and a humorous effect.

(Compare Parody, Pastiche)
AVANT LA LETTRE
The French phrase "avant la lettre" means "before the term (or phrase) existed"

For example:

"She is driven by these sharp emotional changes because as an artist
she is dealing with the subject before it was defined, the medium
before it existed. In this sense, she is an artist of things avant la
lettre."
WITTGENSTEIN AND INTERPRETATION
After all the literary-theoretical fuss about textuality, ambiguity, indeterminacy of meaning, and the endlessness of interpretation, it is salutary to be reminded that Wittgenstein, unlike Stanley Fish or Jacques Derrida, by no means believed that interpretation goes all the way down. On the contrary, he taught us that the word has force only in situations where there is genuine doubt over meaning. Hermeneutics, after all, began as a reflection on that most ambiguous of literary texts, the Bible. It does not make sense to talk in Nietzschean fashion of a perception as an interpretation when there could be no reasonable doubt about what it is we are seeing or smelling. The best example of a sentence, Wittgenstein once observed, is a
quotation from a play. He meant that nobody asks an actor what he is
experiencing when he is speaking, and that in this sense theatre is the
surest guide we have to how it is with us in real life, one which does not involve positing private mental states. It is one instance, among the many recorded in this absorbing collection, of how art for Wittgenstein was not secondary or aberrant, but – along with St Augustine and cowboy movies – the real thing.
EINSTEIN
"a modification of the theory of space and time."
That, of course, was relativity, the theory that set the speed of light as the universal speed limit and loosened space and time from their Newtonian rigidity, allowing them to breathe, expand, contract and bend,
and led to the expanding universe and the apocalyptic marriage of energy and mass in the famous equation E=mc2.
WILLIAM EMPSON
THE late William Empson was one of the most perceptive and brilliant literary critics of the 20th century. His first book, “Seven Types of
Ambiguity”, was published in 1930 when Empson was just 24. An account of the effects that can be obtained by the deliberate or unconscious use of ambiguity in poetry, it marked a milestone in the close scrutiny of poetic practice.In July 1929 he was found with contraceptives in his rooms; not only was he dismissed for this heinous crime, his name was expunged from the college records.
This began years of enforced wandering: life in literary London amongst the bohemians (all beer mugs, shabby clothes, sordid bedsitting rooms), periods of teaching in Japan and, later, China, where he was a witness to the Japanese invasion. His university was being sent into exile. He learnt to sleep on a blackboard, and, in the absence of books, was
obliged to teach poetry by drawing on his prodigious memory of literary texts.
KATAPHATIC

APOPHATIC
I plan to trace out how the kataphatic and apophatic approaches are employed in two classical works that epitomize the best of each. They are the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius (1) and the Cloud of Unknowing by an anonymous Englishman(2) of the fourteenth century.