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21 Cards in this Set

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gonococci
Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
meningococci
Neisseria meningitidis.
chocolate agar
blood agar heated until the blood becomes brown or chocolate in color, used especially to isolate Haemophilus or Neisseria and other species for which unheated blood is inhibitory.
Thayer-Martin medium
5% heat-hemolyzed sheep blood and antibiotics, used for transport and primary isolation of Neisseria
oxidase test
a test for the presence of intracellular cytochrome oxidase based on the reaction with p-phenylenediamine; aids in the identification of Neisseria species
phase variation
Involves turning on and off production of pili and certain outer membrane proteins.
antigenic variation
switch from one pilus antigenic type to another
Disseminated infection
infection widely scattered throughout an organ, tissue, or the body.
NEISSERIA
gram negative, diplococci, kidney bean shapes face each other
Neisseria Meningitis- Resevior
1) Nasopharynx of humans only. Immunity can develop to particular strains
-strict human parasite
2) Spread by respiratory transmition
Neisseria Meningitis- Morpholoyg & Metabolism
1) Kidney bean shaped w/ concave sides facing each other, forming a doughnut
2) Gram - diplococci
3) facultative-anaerobe
4) grows best in high CO2 enviornment
5) Ferments maltose and glucose
Neisseria Meningitis- Virulence
1) Capsule:
a. 9 serotypes
b. serotypes A, B, C are associated with epidemics (usually B

2. IgA1 protease

3. Can extract iorn from transferrin via a non0energy requiring mechanism

4. Pili: for adherece
Neisseria Meningitis- Toxins
1) Endotoxin: Lipopolysaccaride (LPS)
2) No exotoxins
significance of Neisseria as human pathogens
-Gram-negative diplococci (really only important gram negative )
-Positive in the oxidase test
-capnophilic
-cultured on special medium called chocolate agar
-Gram-stained, and will show numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's or "polys" or neutrophils

-Obligate aerobes
catalase positive
Neisseria Meningitidis- Clinical
1. Asymptomatic carriage in the nasopharynx
2. Meningitis:
A. Fever
B. Stiff neck
C. Vomiting
D. Lethargy or altered mental status
E. Petechial rash

3. Septicemia (meningococcemia):
A. Fever
B. Petechial rash
C. Hypotension
Fulminant meningococcemia-bilateral hemorrhage of adrenal glands along w/ hypotension and the petechial rash
Neisseria Meningitidis- Diagnostics
1) Gram shows shows numerous polys
2) Cultured
A. on chocolate Agar
B. Selective media: prevents growth of othe bacteria (Thayer Martin VCN)
C. colonies are obtained and undergo oxidase test for cytochrome C
D. gramstain for dipococci gram -
E. Fermented in glucose & maltose to determine meningococii or gnonococci
Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Reservoir
1) Humans only ( no immunity to repeated infections)
2) Sexually transmitted
Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Morphology and Metabolism
1) Kidney bean shaped w/ concave sides facing each other, forming a doughnut
2) Gram - diplococci
3) facultative-anaerobe
4) grows best in high CO2 enviornment
5) Ferments only glucose
Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Virulence
1) Pili:
A. Adherence to epithelial cells
B. Antigenic variation
C. Antiphagocytic: binds bacteria tightly to host cell, protecting it from phagocytosis

2. IgA1 protease

3. Outer membrane proteins:
-Protein I: porin
-Protein II (opacity protein): presence associated with dark, opaque colonies for adherance
Neisseria gonorrhoeae- TOXINS
1) Endotoxin: Lipopolysaccaride (LPS)
2) No exotoxins
Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Diagnostic
1) Gram stain of urethral pus reveals the iny gram negative donut shaped diplococci within white blood cells

2. Culture
A. Culture specimen on chocolate agar
B. Selective media: prevents growth of other bacteria
* Thayer Martin VCN