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53 Cards in this Set

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what is the compound of a pesticide that controls the target pest called?
the Active Ingrediant!
active ingrediants are mixed w/ liguids, or inert stuff called inert ingrediants.
why are inert ingrediants added along with active ingrediants?
so you can handle it safely, effectively, and easily.
So mixtures of active and inert ingrediants are called ...
Pesticide Formulations!! ta da!
formulations make an active ingrediant more convenient to handle and even more attractive to the pest too!
common pesticide formulations are like?
emulsifiable concentrates
solutions
soluable powders
wettable powders
flowables
microcapsulates
dusts
baits
granules
Aerosols
fumigants
impregnated materials
water dispersable granuales
how do formulatons vary?
formulations differ by
safety to user
potential hazard to enviro
application eq./method needed
likehood of causing phytotoxicity
cost
efficacy of pest control
how do formulations vary?
formulations vary by:
safety to user
potential hazard to enviro
application methods
likelyhood of phtotoxicty
cost
efficacy of pest control
so we learn to choose the best formula for the application. so what?
so the applicator needs to know characteristics of each formulation and type of pest he's attempting to control
Ex Don't use a grannular formula on a windy day, the dust will move elsewhere, right? So, the more the formulations out there, what?
the greater variety can match the pesticide to the conditions.
Types of pesticide formulations
There are Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E)
what is this?
Emulsifiable concentrates are liquids w/ active ingredient & 1 or more petroleum solvents. Emulsifier is added so stuff will mix easily w/ water. Usually Emulsibiable concentrates have 2 - 8 lbs of active ingredients per gallon and when added to water forms a milky white emulsion.
so what is an emulsion?
emulsion is a liquid in another liquid.
ECs (Emulsion Concentrate) are versatile and used all kinds of ways. what are some advantages?
easy to handle, move and store
little agitation required
non abrasive to equipment
no plugging of screens nozzles
whats the disadvantages of Emulsion Concentrates?
hi concentrations of active ingredients REDUCE margin of error when mixing so you have to be careful!
may have hi phytotoxicity hazard
may be easily absorbed thru skin on humans and animals
solvents can damage equipment
may be corrisive to equiptment
may be flammable
another type of pesticide formulation is the
Solutions (s) what is solutions?
solutions are formulations w/ a water soluble active ingredient dissolved in 1 or more liquid solvent.
another type of pesticide formulation is the
Soluble Powders (SP)
what is a soluble powder?
soluble powders are dry, powdered formulations containing 25 - 80 % active ingrediants. So, soluble powders dissolve readily in water.
what good about a soluble powder?
easy to store, move and handle
lower phototoxicity than liquid formulations, esp. ECs
slower skin and eye sbsorption than ECs
whats the down to soluble powders?
its a dust like stuff, you could breath it during mixing!
there is a wettable powder as a type of pesticide formulation. what is this?
Wettable powders are also dry BUT do not dissolve in water. They still mix in water but are a emulsifier so the stuff stays dry particles in liquid.
wettable powders share good and bad things. what are they?
you have to constantley stir it
it causes wear to equipment
clogs sprayers
difficult to mix in hard water
visible residues on treated surfaces
Flowables are yet another pesticide formulation. what is a flowable formulation?
finely ground solid particles combined w/ active ingretients and suspended in liquid carrier. Good thing about this is flowables don't present a inhalation hazard when mixing.
Water Dispersible Granules (WDG)
this type of formulation is similar to wettable powders BUT ...?
active ingredient is grandular form rather than a powder, so dustless! these granular dissolve when mixed w/ water. The resulting spray is then just like a flowable or finely dispersed wettable powder in water.
whats so good about water Dispersible granules? (WDG)
easy to measure
less dust flying around to breathe
Dusts
another pesiticde formulation
dusts contain low % active ingredients. How is a dust formulation applied?
dusts are always administered dry so most all dusts are ready to go, don't need mixing.
whats good about dusts?
easy to handle, use low cost gear
works well when liquid formulations can cause damage
easy to apply in hard to reach areas
whats the negative to dusts?
drifts into non target areas
wind and rain can move it away from treated areas
expensive for amt of active ingredients
may be irritating to user
Granulars (G) and Pellets (P)
granular and pellet formulations are ...?
dry, ready to use w/2-15% active ingredients. Granulers are prepared by applying active ingredients as a liquid to coarse porous stuff
Granules used to control soilborne pests. Many active ingredients in granule have ...
systemic properties, so granular are put on soil where active ingredient can then be absorbed by roots and then translocated thru the plant.
Pellete are similar to Granules but ...?
the pellet formulation has all particles in the same weight and shape! so more precise application
whats good about granulers and pellet formulations?
ready to use no mixing & easy to apply
low drift hazard b/c particles are heavy
little dust to breathe
inexpensive application equipment
what's the down to granules and pellets?
more expensive than WPs or ECs related to amt of active ingredient in formulation
doesn't stick to folage
may need soil incorporation, or moisture to activate pesticide!
hazard to non target species
BAITS are another formulation.
a bait is an active ingredient w/ edible substance or other attractant. where is it placed?
where it can be found OR attract the pest. It must be eaten for it to work.
bait can be used to control birds, mammals, etc. have low % active ingredients < 5%, and are used where?
kitchens
gardens
granaries
fodd storage facilities
refuse disposal areas
what are advantages to using bait?
read to use, no mixing etc
use it only where it is needed
what are some negatives to using bait?
can attract children or pets
kill domestic animals
might not work anyway
dead pests smell
What is Ultr low volume (ULV) formulation?
ULV is a spray app of undiluted formulation at 1/2 gallon per acre. you don't dillute ULV. the formulation only contains the active ingredient or active ingredient in small amounts
why use Ultra low volume ?
you can spray large area w/ small amt of liquid. Require specialized appl. equipment and is limited to small # of insects and few uses.
what are the advantages of ULV?
ready to use, pour into your tank and go
little agitation needed
doesn't plug hoses or screens
non abrasive to gear
what are the downs to ULV?
deterorates rubber hoses, plastic hoses, gaskets, pump parts, surfaces
a drift hazard
absorbed thru skin, need protective clothing
I won't be doing any of this w/out EPA permission it looks like
Encapsulated pesticides formulations (M or ME)
can be either liquid or dry...
is encased in small plastic coated pills that are ...
suspended in a liquid. So the pesiticide is released gradually over a period of time. like a cold remedy.
There are Aerosol formulations. active ingredient in solution and packaged in a pressurized container. Bug bombs here. so what?
contain small amt of active ingredient mixed w/ a propellent
Aerosols can also be applied by hi pressure hoses that produce ?
ext small dropletes. this is old technology.
Fumigants are yet another formulation.
what is a fumigant?
fumigant is a pesticide gas. some are formulated in a liquid, or pressurized liquid that b/c a gas. others are solids that release gas when exposed to moisture.
There are pesticide ingregnated materials.
what are these?
collars, ear tags, gaskets.
usually have pesicide or herbicide on them. designed to release slowly into the immediate area. great for eliminating root growth in pipe joints.
Pesicide mixtures
you can control more than one pest with a mixture with one application. so what?
this saves time, labor, money
and fuel. Lots of pesticides are premixes ready to use but as concentrates that I would mix myself. you can tank mix if allowed.
some mixes work well together, some don't. if they are compatable, then mix them. what do you call two pesicides that don't mix?
incompatible
there can be chemical or physical seperation of ingredients that cause clumps or gels or a mess.
So incompatiblilty can result in?
loss of effectiveness against your target pests
phytotoxicity
hazard to applicator and treated animals
clogged equipment
Before mixing 2 pesticides, what?
read the labels first. can you tank mix them? is it legal? what do we do then? We
do a compatiliblty test
how do you do a compatiblility test?
wear the label required PPE
use a clean quart size jar
use same water you'll be using
add the stuff together in same porportions and in order.
shake it up let stand 15 minutes, look at it. is it clumping?
don't use if it gives off heat!
test it on plants for phytotoxicity if you can.
what is Adjunants?
Adjuvants are additive(s) a chemical added to a pesticide to modify or enhance pesticide performance. Adjuvants by themselves don't have much punch. Used for folier apps. most pesticides have Adjuvants in it.
Surfactants formulations
surfactants are surface active agents, an Adjavant that alters the dispensing,spreading,and/or ...
wetting properties of spray droplets. Wetting agents and spreaders are the adjuvants most freq. used pesticide applicators and referred to as surfactants. What Im trying to say is this surfactant changes the wetting so you can get the pesiticide on a waxy leaf or hairy leaf to stick.
there are other sufactants like stickers, penetrants,sofeners that do what?
enhance absorption, adherence, or safety of a pesticide mixture.
What are buffering agents?
buffering agents, compatibilty agents, emulsifiers and antifoaming agents help with mixing, handling, etc. a buffering agent changes a pH of a tank mix solution. Foaming agents reduce drift during applications
most formulations contain all the adjuvants needed. but we still might need to add a adjuvnat at application. like a wetting agent or ...?
spreader-stickers. (so it will stick to the plant because of conditions present)
crop oil concentrates and liquid fertilizers add increase activity of foliar applied herbicides.
there is also compatibility agents to help get stuff to mix right. There are thickening agents for drift reduction. so we will always need an adjuvant and the best one too as ...?
recommended by the dealer i guess. Don't use these indscriminately. or misuse may lead to crop injury, etc.
pesiticide labels clearly prohibit addition of stuff etc.
so choosing a adjuvant is difficult because its confussing and stuff changes year to year.