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35 Cards in this Set

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A granuloma is precipitation of mycolic acid T/F
F
What is mycolic acid?
long fatty acids found in the cell walls of the mycolata taxon, a group of bacteria that includes Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They form the major component of the cell wall of mycolata species.
A granuloma is a collection of granulocytes T/F
F
A granuloma is a collection of macrophages surrounded by epitheloid cells T/F
T
A granuloma is a characteristic feature of acute inflammation T/F
F
A granuloma is a host response to limit the spread of mycobacteria T/F
T
Cytotoxic T cells mainly express CD4 molecules T/F
F, it's CD8
Cytotoxic T cells interact with antigen presented by class II MHC molecules T/F
F
Cytotoxic T cells require help from CD4+ Th1 cells to become effector cells T/F
T
Cytotoxic T cells are important in virus infections T/F
T
Cytotoxic T cells are useful in killing bacteria T/F
F
Memory responses to antigens usually occur more rapidly than primary responses T/F
T
Memory responses to antigens are a feature of adaptive as distinct from the innate immune system T/F
T
Memory responses to antigens usually result in a lower affinity of antibody produced T/F
F
Memory responses to antigens are usually of greater magnitude than primary responses T/F
T
Memory responses to antigens provide the basis for vaccination T/F
T
B lymphocytes are produced in the thymus T/F
F
B lymphocytes localise in the paracortical region of lymph nodes T/F
F
B lymphocytes are absent from the spleen T/F
F
B lymphocytes develop into plasma cells T/F
T
B lymphocytes have antibody as their antigen receptor T/F
T
T lymphocytes secrete interleukins T/F
T
T lymphocytes secrete antibody heavy chains T/F
F
T lymphocytes stimulate macrophages via cytokine release T/F
T
T lymphocytes stimulate B cells via cytokine release T/F
T
T lymphocytes of the CD4+ subset are responsible for granulomas in TB T/F
T
A complete IgG molecule contains two antigen binding receptors T/F
T (there are two fab chains)
A complete IgG molecule contains two alpha heavy chains T/F
F, that's IgA (easy to remember)
A complete IgG molecule contains one kappa light chain and one lambda chain T/F
F - only ever contain two of the same light chain
A complete IgG molecule contains disulphide bonds between the two light chains T/F
F
The single best defining feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is that it:


1. Has a Gram-positive cell wall structure
2. Can be cultured using solid and liquid media
3. Is an aerobe
4. Is an ‘acid fast’ bacterium
5. Shares cell wall antigens with other mycobacteria
4. Is an ‘acid fast’ bacterium
The single best defining feature of tuberculosis and its spread is that:

1. Spread of infection can be controlled by the isolation of patients
2. Infection can be transmitted via urine
3. M. tuberculosis can cause meningitis
4. Spread of infection can be prevented by vaccination with BCG
5. Infectious aerosols are the principal route of infection
5. Infectious aerosols are the principal route of infection
The single best defining feature of the pathology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is that:


1. Antibodies may protect against M. tuberculosis
2. The main virulence factors of M. tuberculosis are the cell wall mycolic acids and lipoarabinomannan
3. M. tuberculosis can infect lungs without causing lesions
4. M. tuberculosis is ingested by monocytes
5. Phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis involves multiple classes of receptors
2. The main virulence factors of M. tuberculosis are the cell wall mycolic acids and lipoarabinomannan
The single most effective part of the immune response to M.tuberculosis is thought to be:

1 .NK cell recognition of infected macrophages
2. The involvement of Th1 cells
3. Activation of infected macrophages by IFN-gamma produced from Th2 cells
4. The recruitment of regulatory T-cells into the granuloma
5. MHC class II presentation of M.tuberculosis antigens to CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells
2. The involvement of Th1 cells
The single most important fact related to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is that:

1. Acid fast bacilli can be detected by microscopic examination of sputum smears stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen method
2. Diagnosis of tuberculosis is a clinical decision
3. Standard antimicrobial treatment is a combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide +/- ethambutol for a total of 6 months
4. Molecular diagnostics based on the polymerase chain reaction detect M. tuberculosis DNA
5. Total treatment time depends upon the clinical presentation of the disease
3. Standard antimicrobial treatment is a combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide +/- ethambutol for