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33 Cards in this Set

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in ancient Greece, a military formation in which foot soldiers stood so that their shields overlapped forming a wall.
The polis, or city-state, was the basic political unit of Hellenic civilization. Each of the polis had its own lifestyles independently but shared features were other city-state
The chief marketplace of Athens, center of the city's civic life. The place where such an assembly met, originally a marketplace or public square.
The Roman chief marketplace or gathering spot. A center for both politics and commerce.
Appian Way
The first of the Roman roads constructed in 300s B.C. It connected Rome and southeastern Italy.
The Romans built these channels to carry water. The arches of stone carried water from up to 57 miles away.
Became a dominate nomadic group in central Asia in 1100s A.D. They were expert horseback riders and could use a bow and arrow. A leader named Temujin organized all the different Mongol clans under one government. He organized the army into organized cavalry units. Mongol horsemen invaded China in 100,000. In 1279 A.D. they overpowered China and the whole country was under their rule. They created the largest land empire in history. After awhile in 1200s A.D. the Mongol had split into different tribes again.
In ?00s A.D. the Franks emerged as the strongest Germanic group. In A.D. 481 a worrier named Clovis became king of the franks. Fifteen years latter became the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholicism. It began to decline because the kings would split there lands to the heirs and then the heirs would fight against each other. But then many rulers got the Frankish land back in order. One major king was Charlemagne or Charles the Great. He nearly doubled his empire and for the first time since Rome most of the west was under one rule. When Charlemagne died his grandsons fought leaving them open to attack and the decline of the empire.
the Vikings were very skilled warriors and there was no place in Europe that was not in danger. They sought riches and adventure and showed there victims no mercy. The worshiped many deities, but soon the converted to Christianity. With all the invasion trade declined, but then local officials took over security and slowly returned security.
In 392 A.D Theodosius became emperor of the Roman Empire and he made Christianity the official religion. At the same time he banned the old Hellenistic and Roman religions.
Edict of Milan
granted by Emperor Constantine in 313 granting religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire. In addition, the Edict of Milan ordered the return of property taken from Christians.
One who embraces and assists in spreading the teachings of another.
Was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire at its height. Justinian’s wife was named Theodora and she was very active in court and helped her husband gain relations. Justinian ruled without challenge. Justinian wanted to restore Rome to what it had been and went on many conquests that did not work. Eventually when he died he had lost man outlying territories. Justinian legal reforms did last and eventually turned into a book of Corpus of civil law.
was the holy city of three faiths. The Jews said it to be God’s own city and where Solomon’s temple was. The Christians thought it was holy because it was the place Jesus was crucified and where he resurrected. The Muslims thought it was holy because they believed that Muhammad ascended to heaven from there. Fell to Arab rule in the 600s A.D. but everyone was allowed to practice there religions if they paid there taxes
Alexander the Great invaded Egypt where the people welcomed him to take over and named him the Pharaoh. He made his own city and named it Alexandria after himself. He also named many other cities Alexander.
Was the prophet of Islam and was born in 570 A.D. In 610 A.D. he experienced a revelation or vision that was calling him to be the apostle of the one true deity Allah. His second revelation was to rise and warn the people. In 613 A.D. he told his family about the visions and they became the first Muslims. The people who joined at first after that where mostly poorer. The rich merchants and religious leaders scorned this religion because they thought he was going to take pilgrims away from traveling to Makkah. In 622 Muhammad sent 60 Muslim families to Yathrib to live and this journey is called the Hijrah. The Yathrib accepted Muhammad as God’s prophet and their ruler. In a book called Madinah Compact in 624 A.D. he laid out the foundation of the Islam state. In 630 A.D. they went back into Makkah and found little resistance. Makkah became the spiritual capital of Islam. In 631 A.D. Muslims expanded and it included the entire Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad died in 632 A.D. and left behind two main achievements. First was a formation of a religious community based on carefully preserved writings. Second was the example of his life for Muslims to fallow.
A group of Arab merchants founded Makkah which is the most important of market towns. It is located 50 miles inland from the Red Sea. Lots of big caravans from the southwest passed through going to Iraq, Syria, or China. The Arabs had there holiest shrine there which is called Kaaba which is statues of Arab deities. The business of pilgrims makes Makkah very wealthy. When Islam took over they destroyed the Arab deities and they have a temple that was supposedly built by Abraham.
a holy struggle to bring Islam into other lands
Ibn Battuta
started on his travels when he was 20 years old in 1325. His main reason to travel was to go on a Hajj, or a Pilgrimage to Mecca, but his traveling went on for about 29 years and he covered about 75,000 miles which were then mostly under the governments of Muslim leaders of the World of Islam. The Sultan of Morocco insisted that he dictate the story of his travels to a scholar and that story is called "Rihla - My Travels".
They controlled the trade routes between Africa and the rest of the world. They lived in small clans and were Islamic.
a Muslim group from North Africa that attacked Ghanaian trade centers in 100s A.D. This led to Ghana’s downfall and after this Ghana broke into many Islam states.
Was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire. He believed that icons encouraged idol-worship and in 726 A.D. he ordered all idols removed from churches. He and his supporters became known as iconoclasts, or image breakers. The people did not like this and revolted. He finally relented after other emperors relented.
Urban II
In 1095 A.D. delivered a rousing speech to the people to join the first crusade. The first crusade reinforced the authority of the church and straightened the self-confidence of the western Europeans.
Richard the Lionhearted
was the King of England and assembled warriors for the Third Crusade. The “Crusade of Kings” lasted from 1189 A.D. to 1192 A.D. All the other armies dropped out except Richards. He won several battles against the Muslims, but in the end he was no mach for them. He fought for three years.
United the Muslim forces and took Jerusalem in 1187 A.D. He fought many Roman crusades, and refused to give Jerusalem back, but he did allow Christian pilgrims.
The first people to engage in conquest. The Abbasid’s hired them for there armies, but the Turks grew powerful and soon controlled the Abbasid government. The Seljuk Turks came from central Asia and formed settlements. They soon gained control of the major trade routes. They got wealthy and built and empire. They defeated many places including the Byzantines in 1071 A.D. They were skilled worriers but they could not develop an organized government. They began to fight among each other because they had not set rules.
Peter the Hermit
Leading one of the five sections of the People's Crusade to the destination of their pilgrimage, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, he started from Cologne in April, 1096, and arrived at Constantinople at the end of July. Peter joined the only other section which had succeeded in reaching Constantinople, that of Walter the Penniless, into a single group and encamped the still numerous pilgrims around Constantinople while he negotiated the shipping of the People's Crusade to the Holy Land. Peter returned in desperation to Constantinople, seeking the Emperor's help. The Turks soon followed the retreating People's Crusade into Byzantine territory, and in Peter's absence the pilgrims were ambushed and cut to pieces in detail by the Turks. Despite Peter's pronunciations of divine protection, the vast majority of the pilgrims were slaughtered by the swords and arrows of the Turks, or were enslaved.
Silk Road
A network of paths that cut across Asia. The passage was made for Chinese silk and also jade, fruit, ideas, and paintings. Road linked the East from the West. This road was made under the rule of Wudi.
4th Crusade
the Fourth Crusade (1201–1204) was originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through an invasion of Egypt. Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders of the West invaded and conquered the Greek Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Troy is a city which existed over 4000 years and known as the center of ancient civilizations. Many years, people believed that it was the city in tales and never existed until it was first found. At this time it was known as Ileum or New Ileum. At first, Troy appeared in Greek and Latin literature. Homer first mentioned story of Troy in Iliad and the Odyssey. In Bronze Age, Troy has a great power because of its position between Europe and Asia. In the 3rd to 2nd millennia BC, Troy was a cultural centre. After the Trojan War, the site was apparently abandoned from 1100 to 700 BC. About 700 BC Greek settlers began to occupy the Troas. Troy was resettled and named Ilion. Alexander the Great ruled over the area successively from the late 6th century BC. After that Romans captured Troy in 85 BC. It was then restored partially by Roman general Sulla. After the occupation of Constantinople (Istanbul), Troy lost its importance.
was an ancient city on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River located on the site of the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch was destined to rival Alexandria as the chief city of the nearer East and to be the cradle of gentile Christianity
is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. and was an intellectual and spiritual capital and centre for the propagation of Islam throughout Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its three great mosques, Djingareyber, Sankore and Sidi Yahya, recall Timbuktu's golden age. Its geographical setting made it a natural meeting point for nearby African populations and nomadic Berber and Arab peoples from the north. Its long history as a trading outpost that linked west Africa with Berber, Arab, and Jewish traders throughout north Africa, and thereby indirectly with traders from Europe
The Nile
is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. was the lifeline of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley