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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the seven types of infectious agents?
Prions (inanimate)
Viruses (inanimate)
Bacteria (prokaryotic)
Fungi (eukaryotic)
Protozoa (eukaryotic)
Multicellular Parasites/Helminths (eukaryotic)
Insects (eukaryotic)
What is a prion?
A small proteinaceous infectious particle which is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acid

Prion protein has more beta sheet structure than normal protein

Resistant to enzymes
Cause of BSE
What is a virus?
Small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms

Contains only ONE type of nucleic acid
What are the three general shapes of bacteria?
Rods, spheres (cocci) and spiral
What are the two types of fungi?
Filamentous hyphae forming moulds
Unicellular forms (yeasts)
What are protozoa? What are the two forms?
Single celled parasites which include amebas, flagellates, ciliates, sporozoans, and many other forms.

Trophozoite (active) and cyst (resting)
What is a helminth/parasitic worm?
A multicellular parasite that live inside their host live and feed off living hosts. They receive nourishment and protection while disrupting their hosts' nutrient absorption, causing weakness and disease
What are the two ways insects can cause disease?
Directly (e.g. bite) or by injecting a vector for disease transmission (e.g. malaria)
What are the three types of communities microbes can be found in?
Commensalism (live together without interaction), mutualism (deriving benefit form each other (symbiosis)), parasitism (organism causes damage to its host (pathogen))
Why are microbes important to humans?
Can detoxify industrial waste, foooooood (: synthesis, cause disease

160211110 (Mon, intermodular week)
What is a disease that prions form?
encephalopathy- holes formed by
degeneration in the brain
What are the seven properties of viruses?
1. Infect animals, insects, plants, bacteria.
2. Size - too small for light microscope.
3. Classified by morphology & behaviour.
4. DNA OR RNA + protein coat ± envelope
5. Extracellular infectious phase.
6. Obligatory intracellular replication.
7. Viral genes subvert cell biosynthesis to replicate.
What are the six DNA viruses?

Pox, herpes, adeno, papova, hepadna, parvo
What are the different morphologies of a virus?
What are the eleven RNA viruses?

Paramyxo, orthomyxo, corona, arena, retro, reo, picorna, calici, rhabdo, toga/flavi, bunya
What is a viroid?
Infectious RNA molecules
Lack a protein coat
Infect plants only
What chemicals are prions susceptible too?
Phenol, NaOH or hyperchlorite
Which type of virus does not have a cell wall?
Which viruses have dsDNA?

Herpes, Hep B, Papilloma, Adenovirus
Which virus has ssDNA?
Which virus has dsRNA?
Which viruses have ssRNA?
Picorna, rubella, Hep C, HIV, SARS, influenza, measles, mumps
What is flora?
The collective bacteria and other microorganisms in an ecosystem (usually in human and animal hosts or in a single part of its body).
What is an endospore?
A resistant asexual spore that develops inside some bacteria cells. Tough structures that allow some bacteria to go dormant under unfavourable conditions
How do prions replicate?
They don't. The modified protein (PrP^SC) attacks the normal protein (PrP^C) and a 'chain reaction' process occurs.