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9 Cards in this Set

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why is there more cystitis and pyelonephritis in UTI's during pregnancy?
smooth muscle relaxation effects of progesterone lower bladder tone and cause ureteral dilation; enlarged uterus causes mechanical compression and thus obstruction of ureters and stasis
are there more ascending infections during pregnancy?
yes
how are UTI's diagnosed?
clinical signs/symptoms of dysuria, urinary frequency, urinary urgency plus positive urine culture
how will a UTI show up in a U/A?
positive for leukocyte esterase and nitrites, elevated WBC's and bacteria in urine sediment
how is cystitis diagnosed?
suprapubic tenderness upon palpation and complaints of lower abdominal pain in the setting of a UTI
what bug accounts for 70% of all UTIs? what are the rest?
Escherichia coli; the rest are Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Proteus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and group B Streptococcus
what is the initial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria?
amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, or Bactrim (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole)
while treating the infection, what can you give patients with dysuria or bladder pain to increase comfort?
phenazopyridine - it is concentrated in the urine and acts as local anesthetic to reduce pain; urine is turned bright orange
what is the most common complication of a lower UTI?
pyelonephritis, or ascending infection to the kidneys