Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/52

Click to flip

52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Paramyxoviridae
(general)
Family
Enveloped (w/surface projections)
(-) ssRNA
What is the cell receptor (for viral entry) for parainfluenza viruses?
NAMA (like influenza)
What is the cell receptor (for viral entry) for WT measles?
SLAM
What is the cell receptor (for viral entry) for measles vaccine strain?
CD46
What is the cell receptor (for viral entry) for RSV?
Heparin-like GAGs ono cell surface
Paramyxoviridae
(Replication Cycle)
Viruses gain entry into cell via cell receptors (different between genera). The capsids are assembled in the cytoplasm
Paramyxoviridae
(Genera)
Paramyxovirus
Rubulavirus
Morbillivirys
Pneumovirus
Metapneumovirus
Paramyxovirus
Of Paramyxoviridae (family, enveloped and (-) ssRNA)
Diseases: Parainfluenza 1/3
Rubulavirus
Of Paramyxoviridae (family, enveloped and (-) ssRNA)
DiseaseS: Parainfluenza 2/4 and Mumps
Morbillivirus
Of Paramyxovirida (family, enveloped and (-) ssRNA)
Causes Measles
Pneumovirus
Of Paramyxoviridae (family, enveloped and (-) ssRNA)
Diseases: RSV
Metapneumovirus
Of Paramyxoviridae (family, enveloped and (-) ssRNA)
Disease: Metapneumovirus
Paramyxovirida
(Surface glycoproteins, general)
Two, (1) attachment and (2) fusion
Attachment protein: Hemagglutinating-Neuraminidase
Parainfluenza: HN
Morbilli: H
Pneumovirus/Metapneumovirus: lack both
Paramyxoviridae
(Fusion protein)
Surface glycoprotein
Possessed by all members of this family
Facilitates the formation of syncytia
Which virus causes RSV?
RSV = Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Paramyxoviridae family (enveloped, (-)ssRNA), Pneumovirus Genus
Note: name rSv, tells you the virus contains an F (fusion) protein and therefore must at least be a member of the Paramyxxovirus family
Which virus causes Measles?
Morbillivirus, of Paramyxoviridae (enveloped, (-) ssRNA)
Which virus causes Mumps?
Rubulavirus, of Paramyxoviridae (enveloped, and (-) ssRNA)
Parainfluenza/RSV/Metapneumovirus
(Pathogenesis)
Transmission: Direct Contact or Droplet
SHORT INCUBATION PERIOD (<week) and surface cytocidal (virus infects/produces disease at portal of entry)
Mumps and Measles
Systemic Infection (tells your it'll have a longer incubation period) w/primary target organs
What is the primary target organ of Measles?
The skin, following systemic infection
What is the primary target organ of Mumps?
The parotid glands, following systemic infection
Which Paramyxovirus diseases are systemic?
Mumps and Measles
Which Paramyxovirus diseases are localized at portal of entry?
Parainfluenza, RSV and Metapneumovirus
Parainfluenza Virus 1/2
Of paramyxoviridae (parainfluenza virus and rubulavirus genera, respectively)
Incidence: PIV1 > PIV2
Disease: Any acute respiratory infection in YOUNG CHILDREN, CROUP
Whats the common etiology of Croup?
Parainfluenza virus 1/2
What is croup?
Acute respiratory disease often seen in young children, characterized by fever, runny nose, red throat and BARKING COUGH
Parainfluenza Virus Type 3
Genus: parainfluenza virus
Acute respiratory diseases (infancy): RSV > PIV3 (so, it's pretty common!)
RSV
Respiratory Syncytial Virs
Paramyxoviridae (Pneumovirus Genus)
Frequency: highest during first 2 years of life
May lead to acute bronchiolitis (and possibly require hospitalization)
What is a severe complication of RSV infection?
Acute Bronchioliltis (may require hospitalization)
Human Metapneumovirus
Of Paramyxoviridae (enveloped, and (-) ssRNA)
Incidence: Similar to RSV, more predominant in early years
Complications: bronchiolitis/pneumonia
Immunity to mumps and measles
LIFELONG
Capacity for Infection
(mumps vs. measles)
Measles is more contagious vs. mumps
Parainfluenza and RSV
(diagnosis)
RSV: Rapid Diagnosis w/enzyme immunoassays (routine @ hospitals)
RT-PCR prosing alternative
Mumps and Measles
(Diagnosis)
Characteristic clinical illness are generally sufficient. However, serology/culture may be used for monitoring vaccines
Which Paramyxoviruses have epidemics ever other year (vs. every year)?
Parainfluenza 1/2
RSV
(Prevention and Treatment)
Prevention: anti-F antibodies
Treatment: Ribavarin (nucleoside analog that selectively inhibits viral enzymes)
Measles/Mumps
(Prevention)
2X MMR vaccine at 1 and before school-entry
Immunology appears to be life-long
Coronaviridae
(general)
Enveloped w/club-shaped surface projections, (+) ssRNA
Coronavirus (Genus)
Types (that infect humans): OC43, 229E and one implicated in SARS
What is the cellular receptor for SARS?
ACE2
Coronaviridae
(Pathogenesis)
Surface cytocidal (except SARS, servere LRTI and viremia)
Coronaviridae
(Clinical Manifestations)
Cold (20%), diarrhea (infants)
Coronaviridae
(Diagnosis)
Clinical symptoms
RT-RPCR
Does a vaccine prevent against Coronaviridae infections?
NO! But one against SARS is in the works
Rhabdoviridae
(general)
Bullet-shaped
Enveloped
(-) ssRNA
Lyssavirus (genus) and Rabies Virus
Rhabdoviridae
(life cycle)
Similar to paramyxoviridae (nucleocapsid assembly in the cytoplasm - Negri bodies)
Negri Bodies
Cytoplasmic inclusions present in rhaboviral infections
Rabies
(epidemiology)
Rampant in wild animals (mammals), spread to domestic animals and then man
Rabies
(Pathogenesis)
Present in saliva and transmitted via bite
Virus ascends nerve sheath to CNS
Causes muslce spasms (including pharynx, hence hydrophobia) and encephalitis
Pathognomonic
Characteristic/symptomatic of a particular disease (i.e. Negri bodies and rabies)
What kills rabies patients?
Encephalitis
Rabies
(Prevention)
Vaccination of domestic animals and at-risk persons
Post-exposure prophylaxis (debridement, anti-serum and vaccine - 5 rounds)
RESULT? Most incidents of rabies today come from wild-animal bites