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38 Cards in this Set

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Parvovirus B19
(general characteristics)
Parvo = "Small"
Non-enveloped - resistant to heat/acid/lipid solvents and nucleases
Genus Erythrovirus (of Parvoviridae)
Parvovirus B19
(Epidemiology)
Worldwide, spring infections
Most common infections 5-10 years olds
Parvovirus
(Pathogenesis)
Transmission: respiratory secretions
Target rapidly dividing cells (i.e. RBCs), resulting in pancytopenia
Antibody response, resulting in immune complex sequelae (including rash, arthralgia/arthritis)
Parvovirus B19
(Clinical Manifestation)
Erythema Infectiosum
a.k.a. Fifth Disease/Slapped Cheek Disease
Rash develops a couple weeks after a non-specific viral infection (due to IC formation + arthralgia/arthritis
Parvovirus B19 and Pregnancy
May be detrimental to pregnancy, resulting in congenital birth defects or loss of child
Parvovirus B19 infection and people with underlying hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic Anemia? i.e. Sickle Cell Anemia
The lytic infection of RBCs (recall, it's non-enveloped) causes people to go into a transient aplastic crisis
Transient Aplastic Crisis
May result from a Parvovirus B19 infection in persons with underlying hemolytic anemia
Common Childhood Exanthams
1) Measles
2) Scarlet Fever
3) Rubella
4) Duke's
5) Erythema Infectiosum (slapped cheek)
6) Roseola
Parvovirus B19 Infection of the Immunocompromised
Chronic Anemia/Pure RBC anemia
Can't clear infection, so RBCs are continually lysed
Parvovirus Infection
(3 clinical outcomes)
Fifth Disease
Transient Aplastic Anemia
Chronic Anemia
Parvovirus B19
(Diagnosis)
B19 DNA
Detection of IgM or rising IgG B19-antibody titers
Parvovirus B19
(at-risk groups)
Underlying hemolytic anemia
Pregnant
Immunodeficient
Poxviruses
Brick-like
Enveloped, dsDNA
4 genera (all have pox in their name)
Ortoho/para/yata/molluscipoxvirus
Poxvirus Infections
(2 general forms)
1) Localized (through broken skin, local infection w/possible lymphotogenous spread and adenopathy)
2) Generalized (through lungs, hematogeouos spread to other organs. 2ndary viremia spreads to skin)
Orthopoxvirus
Genus, of Pox viral family (therefore, large, brick-like, enveloped and dsDNA)
Contains smallpox, cowpox, monkeypox and vaccinia
Smallpox
Resevoir: humans
Spread: direct-contact or droplets
Incidence: eradicated
Vaccinia
Virus used for smallpox vaccine!
Monkeypox
Of orthopoxvirus genus (therefore, dsDNA, enveloped, brick-like and huge)
Found in west/central Africa
What is the Monkeypox resevoir?
RODENTS, not monkeys!
Poxvirus
(Diagnosis)
Guarnieri Bodies
Electron microscopy and culture
Guarnieri Bodies
Cytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions found in Poxvirus Infections
Adenoviridae
(general)
Non-enveloped
dsDNA
Adenoviridae
(Epidemiology)
Worldwide distribution
Most commonly occur in childhood
Adenoviridae
(Transmission)
Airborne
Direct contact (incl. fomites)
Fecal-oral
Waterborne
(VARIES BY TYPE)
Adenoviridae and Cancer
NO PROVEN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADENOCVIRUSES AND CANCER (eventhouogh oncogenic under certain experimental conditions)
Adenoviridae and Military Recruits
Serotypes 4 & 7 implicated with acute respiratory disease/pneumonia
What Serotypes are implicated in Adenovirus-induced pneumonia? And, what age group is predominantly affected?
4 & 7
Adenovirus
(Treatment and Prevention)
Oral live virus vaccine (4 & 7) used in military recruts
Infection control measures
Cidofovir/donor leukocyte infusions (BMT patients)
Adenoviridae
(Pathogenesis)
Localized infection at portal of entry with possible systemic spread
Papilloma/Polyomaviridae
(general)
Recently classified as two family
small, non-enveloped circular dsDNA
Polyomaviruses
Worldwide distributoion
Asymptomatic infections acquired ealry in childhood
JC/BK persist in kidneys
JC/BK
Polyomaviruses that persist in the kidney
Majority of polyomavirus have acute, asymptomatic infections that are generally acquired in childhood
Papillomaviruses
Worldwide distribution of unkown prevalence (obviously)
MOST COMMON SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED VIRUSES
Polyomaviruses
(pathogenesis)
Respiratory transmission, unknown incubation period
Lytic/persistent infection (it's DNA)
NOTE: viral protein (T antigen) drives cell into S phase!
BK Virus
Of papillomaviridae
(therefore, small, non-enveloped and circular dsDNA)
Persists in the kidney and doesn't become a problem till you're immunosuppressed (i.e. KIDNEY TRANSPLANTS/AIDS)
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Differential Diagnosis includes opportunistic infections
In Immunocompromized hosts, *JC* becomes reactivated and causes a rapidly progressing, terminal leukoencephalopathy
Treating PML in the AIDS patient
HAART may stimulate PML regression
Papillomavirus Infection
(Treatment)
Removal: Surgery/Caustic Agents
Interferons
Imiquimod (topical cream)