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35 Cards in this Set

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Arboviruses
(general)
Arthropod-Borne
Arthropod-Wild Animal Cycle w/occasional introduction to domestic animals or man
Arboviruses
(presenting symptoms)
CNS/febrile/hemorrhagic disease
Arthropod Vectors
Mosquitos, ticks, flies, etc
Most viruses spread by 1/2 species of arthropod (selectivity)
Encephalitis Viruses
(general)
Resevoir: Birds
Spread by MOSQUITOS, and therefore SEASONAL outbreaks (late summer)
Encephalitis
(clinical presentation)
ICEBERG EFFECT
Fever, Headache, Vomiting (b/c increased intracranial pressure) but minimal stiff neck
Q: Why does encephalitis present w/a minimally stiff neck (vs. meningitis)?
Encephalitis reflecs the viral preference for brain tissue vs. the meninges. The clinical presentatioon of meningitis is a stiff neck.
Why is "stiff neck" a clinical presentation of meningitis?
Inflammation of the meninges extends down spinal cord. Looking down (toward stomach) particularly stretches this inflammed tissue, resulting in profound dorsal neck pain
Encephalitis
(outcome)
Substantial percentage have decreased IQ/learning disorders
Encephalitis
(Laboratory Diagnosis)
LP, with CSF exam
(1) Elevated pressure
(2) 50-200 WBC (majority are lymphocytes)
(3) Low - normal sugar
(4) Modestly elevated - normal protein
Imaging studies provide little, additional information
Encephalitis
(Etiology Diagnosis)
Viruses rarely in CSF
Identify in brain tissue via culture/immunofluorescence
PAIRED SERA W/RISING AB (IgM likely diagnostic)
Encephalitis
(Treatment)
NONE!
Possibly interferon?
Togaviridae
Lipid-enveloped (think TOGA)
(+) ssRNA (polyA and 5' cap)
TAR: Togaviridae, Alphavirus and Rubivirus
Alphavirus
Togaviridae genus
Arbovirus (mosquito-borne)
New world viruses: Eastern/Western/Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
Rubivirus
Rubella
(Person-to-person)
Vaccine available and congenitial defects if contract during pregnancy
Flaviviridae
Family
(+) ssRNA w/5' cap BUT NO POLY A (distinguishes it from Togaviridae)
3 genera: Flavivirus, Hepacivirus, Pestivirus
Flavivirus
Geneus of Flaviviridae
Flavum = YELLOW
So, think "yellow fever", then Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis (all very common illness when traveling abroad)
Also, TBE and Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever
Japanese Encephalitis Group
Part of Flavivirus genus
Includes, JE, West Nile, SLE (most common E in eldery @ home) and Murray Valley
What 5 disease groups constitute genus Flavivirus?
JE group, Yellow Fever, Dengue, TBE and Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever
Pestivirus
Genus
Of Flaviviridae, therefore (+)ssRNA w/5'cap and NO POLY A tail
Diarrhea in animals/man?
Hepacivirus
Of Flaviviridae, therefore (+)ssRNA w/5' cap and NO POLY A tail
Causes Hepatitis C
Diagnosing Flaviridae Infection?
Serology
Bunyaviridia
Think Cal LaCrosse player w/a bunion
Lipid-enveloped
(-) ssRNA, segmented (3)
Bunyaviridae Genera
(which infect man)
Bunyavirus (LaCrosse/California Encephalitis)
Nairovirus
Phleobovirus
Hantavirus (Sin Nombre)
Sin Nombre Virus
Hantavirus, of Bunyaviridae
(-) ssRNA, segmented (3)
4 Corners Outbreak (in young adults)
Fulminant Flu-like disease, high WBC, w/respiratory failure/death
Rodent resevoir,
Bunyaviridae
(Laboratory Diagnosis)
Serology
Arenaviridae
"Sand-like" appearance on EM
Lipid-enveloped, AMBISENSE ssRNA (2 segments)
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis
Lassa Fever (endemic West African virus)
Both viruses are carried in rodents and transferred to humans via excrement
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis
Prodrome: Fever, Myalgia, Headahce
Then 1-3 weeks later, meningitis
Arenaviridae
(Diagnosis)
Serology, Culture, RT-PCR
Lassa Fever
(treatment)
Of Arenaviridae
Tells you, ssRNA AMBISENSE, lipid-enveloped and in 2 segments
Treatment? Ribavirin
Ribavirin
Used to treat Lassa Fever (endemic Arenaviridae virus of West Africa)
Filoviridae
Filo = Filament
Think of that classical EM of the "Shepherd's Staff"
(-) ssRNA, lipid-enveloped
2 genera: Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus
Marburgvirus
Genus
Of Filoviridae (tells you (-) ssRNA, lipid-enveloped and filamentous)
Ebola Virus
4 species, including Zaire Virus and "____ ebolavirus"
Of Filoviridae, tells you (-)ssRNA with lipid-envelope
Filoviridae
(Clinical Characteristics)
HEMORRHAGIC FEVER w/HIGH incidence of Mortality
Filoviridae
(Laboratory Diagnosis)
Antigen Detection