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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Children incorporate into their self-image their growing understanding of how others see them.
true
Emotions such as shame and pride develop in middle childhood, not early childhood.
False
Harter's research includes 12 levels of development.
false
Children who have developed representational systems can integrate their sets of positive and negative emotions.
true
Older children can describe conflicting feelings toward the same target, whereas younger children cannot.
true
Self-esteem in early childhood tends to be global and unrealistic, reflecting adult approval.
true
The main gender difference in early childhood is girls' greater aggressiveness.
false
Gender stereotypes peak during the preschool years.
true
Gender differences are exclusively behaviorally based.
false
According to Parten, play becomes less social during early childhood.
false
Nonsocial play is not necessarily immature; it depends on what children do when they play.
true
Discipline can be a powerful tool for socialization.
true
Authoritative parents tend to raise less competent children.
false
Power assertion, inductive techniques, and withdrawal of love can be effective in certain situations.
true
Most children become more aggressive after age 6 or 7.
false
Family conflict can be used to help children learn rules and standards of behavior and negotiating skills.
true
Boys tend to practice relational aggression and girls engage in overt aggression.
false
Preschool children show temporary fears of real and imagined objects.
true
The incidence of reported maltreatment and abuse of children has decreased since 1970.
false
Sibling and peer relationships contribute to self-efficacy.
true
Most sibling interactions are negative.
false
Siblings tend to resolve disputes on the basis of moral principles, although not always the same ones parents use.
true
Same-sex siblings, especially girls, tend to get along best.
true
Friends have more positive and negative interactions than do other playmates.
true
Parenting does not affect children's social competence with peers.
false
The self-concept undergoes major change in _____.
early childhood
According to neo-Piagetians, self-definition
a. shifts from single representations to representational mappings.
b. never changes
A
Self-esteem in early childhood tends to be
a. unpredictable.
b. global and unrealistic.
b. global and unrealistic.
According to Erikson, the chief developmental crisis of early childhood is
initiative vs. guilt.
The main gender difference in early childhood is
boys' greater aggressiveness.
Gender stereotypes
a. decline until adolescence.
b. peak during the preschool years.
b. peak during the preschool years.
The idea that gender differences are biologically based is suggested by
a. differences in brain size and hormonal activity.
b. Freud.
a. Differences in brain size and hormonal activity.
According to social cognitive theory, children learn gender roles through
a. socialization.
b. church.
c. parents.
a. socialization
According to Piaget and Smilansky, the order of cognitive progression in children's play is:
a. formal, functional, pretend, cognitive, constructive.
b. functional, constructive, pretend, formal, games with rules
b. functional, constructive, pretend, formal, games with rules
In early childhood, children prefer to play
a. with others of the opposite sex.
b. with others of the same sex.
b. with others of the same sex.
The most effective method of discipline is
a. inductive techniques
b. spanking
a. inductive techniques
Baumrind identified
a. three parenting styles.
b. four methods of discipline.
a. three parenting styles.
The most common type of aggression in early childhood is
a. hostile aggression.
b. instrumental aggression.
b. instrumental aggression.
Maltreatment includes
a. physical abuse.
b. neglect.
c. sexual abuse.
d. All of the above.
d. All of the above.
Siblings and peer relationship contribute to
a. aggression.
b. self-efficacy.
b. self-efficacy.
Most sibling interactions are
a. negative.
b. altruistic.
c. positive.
d. undefined.
c. positive.
Only children seem to develop
a. with unusual grace.
b. as well as children with siblings.
b. as well as children with siblings.
Pre-schoolers choose playmates and friends who are
a. unlike them.
b. like them.
c. leaders.
d. none of the above.
b. like them.
Aggressive children of preschool age are
a. less popular than pro-social children.
b. more popular than pro-social children.
a. less popular than pro-social children.
The cluster of characteristics used to describe oneself is known as
a. self-concept.
b. self-definition.
c. real self
d. ideal self.
b. self-definition.
When a child adopts the characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behavior of the same-sex parent, it is know as
identification
Play involving use of objects or materials to make something is classified as
constructive play
A discipline strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control is known as
power assertion.
After age 6 or 7, children become
a. less aggressive.
b. more aggressive.
c. more to inclined to pout.
d. more likely to have temper tantrums.
a. less aggressive.
According to Kohlberg, gender constancy leads to
a. frustration.
b. acquisition of gender roles.
c. pre-adolescence.
d. cognitive competence.
b. acquisition of gender roles.