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9 Cards in this Set

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Describe the endocrine system
it consists of glands that release hormones that are transported by the blood
What is homeostasis?
maintaining the internal environment between limits (to keep stable internal conditions)
What are some body factors that are kept in homeostasis?
blood pH, carbon dioxide concentration, blood glucose concentration, body temperature, water balance (plus others in H1)
How is homeostasis maintained (in general)
1. Variables are monitored (the variables are blood glucose concentration, body temperature, etc) 2. If the variable changes outside its acceptable limits, correcting changes are made by negative feedback mechanisms (be able to explain with diabetes example)
What is negative feedback?
Negative feedback=”a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation”
Where is insulin made?
β cells in the pancreatic islets make insulin
Where is glucagon made?
α cells in the pancreatic islets make glucagon
How is homeostasis maintained for blood glucose concentration?
insulin decreases blood sugar, glucagon increases blood sugar; insulin promotes uptake of glucose by cells, glucagon does not have an effect on glucose uptake; insulin promotes change of glucose to glycogen, glucagon promotes change of glycogen to glucose; insulin promotes cell respiration, glucagon does not have an effect on cell respiration; insulin promotes change of glucose to fat, glucagon promotes breakdown of fats; both are involved in the homeostatic/feedback control of blood glucose;
What is the difference between type I and type II diabetes?
1. Type I diabetes—your body makes little to no insulin, treated by insulin injections, insulin-dependent, often starts in childhood. 2. Type II diabetes—your body can make insulin but your body can’t use the insulin it makes (the cells don’t respond properly to insulin), insulin can be a part of therapy but may not help, obesity is a cause, often starts in adulthood although childhood cases are possible.