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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Types of parasites & their descriptions
Protozoa- single celled, cyto & organelles, mem-bound nucleus, motility

Helminths- multi-celled, differented tissue, organ systems
Describe Amoebae/Rhizopods and common manifestation
GI- Entamoeba Histolytica
Blood/Tissue- naegleria fowleri (meningoencephalitis)
Describe Flagellates
GI- Trichomonas Vaginalis
Blood/Tissue- Trypanosoma Brucei (african sleeping sickness)
Describe Sporozoa
GI- cryptosporidium
Blood/Tissue- Toxoplasma gondii (pneumonitis in immunosuppressed)
3 Types of Protozoa
3 Types of Helminths
Nematodes- round worms
Cestodes- tapeworms
Trematodes- flukes
5 Helminths in human Disease
Trichuris Truchiura- Nematode- mebendazole
Taenia Saginata & Solium- Cestode- Praziquantes
Enterobius Vermicularis-nematode- Mebendazole
Ascarius Lumbricoides-Nematode- Pryantel
Strongyloides- nematode- Thiabendazole
Life Cycle/transmission of Trichuris Truchiura
"whip worm"
egg in soil/ingest/worm in cecum/poop out eggs
prolapsed rectum
Symptoms of Trichuris Truchiura
often asymptomatic
rectal prolapse
Dx by eggs in stool
Treatment of Trichuris Truchirua
Life Cycle/Transmission Taenia Saginata, Solium
Saginata in beef
Solium in pork
ingest larvae (in cyst)in undercooked meat
adult attaches & lives in small intestine
infected human poops out eggs that cause Cysticercosis (fecal/oral transmission)
Characteristics of Cestodes
Tape worm
Scolex (head)
Proglottid (reproductive organs- both male & female)
definitive host harbors adult worm
intermediate host does not
Symptoms of Taenia Saginata/Solium
abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss
can obstruct appendix, pancreatic duct, biliary duct
dx: eggs or proglottids in stool
Treatment of Taenia Sag/Sol
Praziquantel (or niclosamide)
Symptoms of Cysticercosis
(human as intermediate host)
granulomatous reaction in brain, muscle, etc
Dx: biopsy, CT
Lifecycle/Transmission of Enterobius Vermicularis
equal prevalance in developed & developing nations
human to human only
eggs hatch into sheets
characteristics of nematodes
roundworm, not segmented, outer proteinaceous cuticle
treat w/mebendazole
Symptoms of Enterobius Vermicularis
Perianal Puritus
anerexia, pain
Dx: eggs on cellophane tape
Treatment of Enterobius Vermicularis
Lifecycle/Transmission Ascarius Lumbricoides
egg in dirt, ingest, gut, burrow to blood, lung, cough & swallow, eggs passed in feces
Symptoms of Ascarius Lumbricoides
often asymptomatic
maybe pneumonia w/eosinophilia
abdominal pain/obstruction
Dx: eggs in stool
Treatment of Ascarius Lumbricoides
Pyrantel pamoate or mebendazole
Lifecycle/transmission of Strongyloides
direct penetration of skin (falariform larvae), travel blood to lung, cough & swallow, Rabdiform larvae in poop
which organism can autoinfect
Rabdiform larvae is ...
Strongyloides larvae transmitted in feces
Cuneiform larvae is ...
Strongyloides larvae that penetrates skin
Symptoms of Strongyloides
ASYMPTOMATIC unless immunosuppressed-
test before immunosuppression
Treatment of strongyloides
2 amoebae and their characteristics
Entamoeba histolytica- bloody diarrhea (tx w/metronidazole)
Nagleria Fowleri- in warm springs, meningitis
4 flagelletes
trichomonas vaginitis
trypanosoma Cruzi
trypanosoma brucei
giardia lamblia
Treatment for flagelletes
metronadazole except brucei
(brucei gets Suramin or Melarsoprol if CNS)
Characteristics of Trypanosoma Cruzi
Chagas Disease
"kissing bug" or "assasin bug"
enter mucous membrane, invasion into lymph-MP, endocrine, myocardium & neural tissue (from scratching bite)
bug poop
Characteristics of Trypanosoma Brucei
African Sleeping Sickness
tse tse fly
CNS involvement & death (untreated)
chancre, parasitiemia
bug saliva
3 sporozoa
Lifecycle for malaria
Sporozite from mosquito
schizonte in liver
in blood "ring" trophozoite (then becomes schizonte or gametocyte-mosquito ingests)
Treatment for malaria
chloroquine (most falciprum is resistant)
quinine, quinidine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine, artemisinin
Cryptosporidium characteristics
oral-fecal-water (pools- chlorine doesn't kill)
traveler's diarrhea
Lethal in AIDS
treatment for cryptosporidium
none currently available
Cyclosporidia characteristics
on raspberries, irrigation
tx w/bactrim
4 Superficial Mycoses
Pityriasis Versicolor from mallassezia furfur (body)
Tinea Nigra from Exophilia Wernickii (palms)
Black Piedra from Piedraia Hortae (hair)
White Piedra from trichosporon Beigeii (hair)
tinea cruris
mycoses in groin, prerianal, perineal
tinea unguium or onychomycosis
sporothrix schenckii
subcutaneous mycoses
ubiquitous-plants,soil, organic matter- roses
(rancher treated for sarcoid)
Eumycotic mycetoma
feet or hands
suppurative granuloma w/mycotic grains
ugly but painless
systemic mycoses
all are dimorphic except cryptosporidium
Histo- Ohio
Blasto- chicago's dz
coccidio- San Joaquin
Cryptococcus- pidgeon poop
mycoses in Ohio river valley
bat, chicken
granulomatous inflammation
intracellular yeast
"chicago's dz"
broad based budding
chronic cutaneous & osseous dz
San Joaquin Valley
dissemination more likely in men, dark skin, pregnant females, immunosupression
cultures are very contageous
spherules in vivo
encapsulated, monomorphic
pigeon droppings
association w/leukemia, lymphoma & immunosuppressive tx
opportunistic mycoses
candidiasis- nosocomial blood infections
pneumocystis Carnii- cholesterol instead of ergosterol- AIDS