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32 Cards in this Set

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Term for establishment of an organism at a given site
Is colonization of a pathogen usually pathogenic?
No, colonization is a characteristic of normal flora
Term for establishemt of organisms at a given site resulting in either a host immune response an/or damage to the host
Infection is usually due to...
1) Pathogen
2) Opportunistic organism
What is the result of tissue damage from an infection?

Tissue damage may be clinical or sub-clinical
Name the three stages of infection
1) Incubation period
2) Apparent infection
3) Latency
Time between the initiation of infection and the onset of disease
Incubation period
Stage of infection when an organism is present and detectible, but no signs/symptoms of disease are present
Incubatoin period
Does tissue destruction occur during the incubation period o infection?
No, not generally
Period of infection where an organism is present and manifests detectible signs/symps
Can the etiologic agent be recovered during the apparent stage of an infection?
The apparent stage of infection is synonomous with ...
clinical disease
Stage of infection when an agent cannot be isolated although it is still present
Name some examples of latent infections
Name the 6 general steps in microbial invasion and pathogenesis
1) Entry into host
2) Attachment to target cells
3) Replication
4) Spread (local or systemic)
5) Tissue destruction
6) Exit and survival in environment
Name four ways that pathogens can enter a host
1) Respiratory
2) Alimentary (GI)
3) Integument break
4) Genital mucous membranes
How do pathogens attach to target cells?
1) Adhesions and receptors
2) Attachment sites and pili
Pathogen attachment to target cells:
Specific targets for pathogens, often in a "lock and key" type fashion
Adhesions and receptors
Pathogen attachment to target cells:
Structures found on the surface of certain microbes that act in a non-specific manner to promote attachment between the organism and host cell
Attachment sites and pili
Replication rate depends on the infecting organism.
Give an example of a rapidly and slowly replicating pathogen.
Rapid: HIV (millions of copies realeased per day)

Slow: TB (several days for MTB to reproduce)
Name the four ways that pathogens can spread (locally or systemically)
1) Direct (contiguous)
2) Hematogenous (blood stream)
3) Lymphatic
4) Neuronal
Give an example of an organism that can spread directly
Staphylococcus aureus (cellulitis)
Give an example of an organism that can spread in the blood stream
Enterococcus faecalis (endocarditis)
Give an example of an organism that can spread via the lymphatic system
Streptococcus pyogenes/Grp A Strep (lymphangitis)
Give an example or an organism that spreads via nerve cells
Rabies via axonal retrograde transport
What actually leads to pathologic effects during infection
Tissue destruction
Name four entities that can cause tissue destruction during an infection
1) Toxins
2) Enzymes
3) Cell disruption (viruses)
4) Immune response
List some interventions that can reduce entry of pathogens into a host
1) Mechanical barriers (PPE)
2) Alteration of entry site (stomach pH)
3) Risk avoidance
4) Sanitation
5) Hand hygiene
Attachment of an organism to target cells in the host requires time. List some interventions that can reduce attachment of pathogens.
1) Medical interventions (medicaions or immunizations)
2) Coughing
3) Bathing
4) Debridement
5) Fluhing (forward flow of fluids)
How are organisms prevented from replicating once inside the host
1) Immunizations
2) Antimicrobial drugs
How does an immunization interfere with the replication of invading pathogens
Numerous vaccines induce the formation of opsonizing antibodies that help the immune system rapidly clear organisms from the body
How do antimicrobial drugs interfere with invading pathogens
Most antimicrobials work best on organisms that are actively REPLICATING