Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/106

Click to flip

106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What four features are diverse among microorganisms?
Appearance
Metabolism
Physiology
Genetics
Bacteria have rigid cell walls usually composed of ______
peptidoglycan
What domain is fungi considered?
Eucarya
Algae are considered a member of what domain?
Eucarya
The bacterial chromosome is present in what form?
Super coiled (twisted)
Where is the bacterial chromosome located?
The Nucleoid. a discreet, gel-like region
What are plasmids?
Smaller, circular pieces of double stranded DNA.

They are antibiotic resistant and can be transferred from one bacterium to another which explains the increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance.
Plasmids are ___ resistant, and ___ producing.
antibiotic resistant, toxin producing
The increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance is due to copies of ____ that are transferred from one bacterium to another
plasmids
The bacterial ribosome is the site of ___ synthesis, and consists of what subunits?
protein synthesis

30 S and 50 S (combine to form 70S). This is different than eukaryotic ribosomes which are 80S
Where is the ETC found in bacteria?
On the cytoplasmic membrane
The structure of the cell membrane with its dynamic nature is called the
“fluid mosaic model”
What is the major component of the cell wall?
What are the two alternating subunits?
Peptidoglycan

NAM (N acteylmuramic acid) and NAG (N acetylglucosamine)
Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria are classified based on what?
Cell Walls. BC of the cell wall, they will stain differently in the gram stain
What are the steps in the gram stain?
1. Crystal Violet (primary stain), stains cell purple
2. Iodine (mordant), all cells stay purple.
3. Alcohol. Gram Negative cells loose color while gram positive cells stay purple
4. Safarin. Stains gram negative cells pink/red
Gram positive cells stain ____, while gram negative cells stain ___.
Purple
Red / Pink
The Prominent component of gram-positive cell walls is _____. This sticks out above the ______ and is ____ charged.
teichoic acid

peptidoglycan layer

Negatively charged. (this gives the cell negative polarity)
The peptidoglycan layer of gram negative cells is located between the outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane in a region is called the ______.
It is filled with a gel-like fluid called the_____
periplasmic space
periplasm
The outer membrane of gram negative cells is composed of ____.
lipopolysaccharides.

The presence of this outer membrane makes gram negative cells resistant to many antimicrobial medications.
What makes gram negative cells resistant to many antimicrobial medications?
The outer membrane

This membrane is composed of lipopolysacchrides
Lipopolysacchrides are composed of what?
Lipid A (anchors LPS to lipid bilayer)

O-specific polysacchride side chain (used in identification)
What structure in the gram negative cell wall is responsible for the body's ability to recognize the presence of invading bacteria?
Lipid A (found in the LPS of the outer membrane)
___ anchors LPS to the lipid bilayer, and ____ is used in identification. Both of these structures are components of lipopolysacchrides
Lipid A

O specific polysaccharide side chain.
Large amounts of LPS in the blood can cause _____
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

(Inappropriate activation of the coagulation cascade and fibrinolysis)
Name some exceptions to the gram stain
Mycobacterium and Mycoplasma
What are other names for the glycocalyx?
Slime and Capsule
Some types of capsules, slime layers enable bacteria to adhere to surfaces, developing communities called ___
biofilms
What are the parts of a flagellum?
Filament – portion that extends into the outside environment

Hook – connects the filament to the cell surface

Basal body – anchors the flagellum to the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane
Pili that enable attachment of cells to specific surfaces are called ____
fimbriae
Fimbriae have at their tips (or alongside) protein molecules called ____
adhesins.

These will attach to specific molecules
What are fimbriae?
The pili that enable attachment of cells to specific surfaces
What is sporulation?
The Process by which spores are formed.
What are some famous endospore producers?
Clostridium botulinum (botulism)
Clostridium perfringens (gangrene)
Clostridium tetani (tetanus)
Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
Harvesting energy from compounds requires a series of coupled ____ reactions
redox
Regarding redox reactions for energy, the electrons are eventually transferred to a compound (such as oxygen), called the _____
terminal electron acceptor
The transition step (with regards to central metabolis pathways) is from ___ to ___.
glycolysis to TCA
Glycolysis generates 2 ATP (by _______) and 2 NADH.
substrate-level phosphorylation
In the transition step, an oxidation generates ___, ___ is removed, and ___ is added.
NADH,
CO2 is removed,
coenzyme A is added
What is the Chemiosmotic Theory?
electron transport chain linked to ATP synthesis
In Aerobic respiration, the terminal electron acceptor is ____
oxygen
In Anaerobic respiration, the terminal electron acceptor is ____
some molecule other than oxygen (ie Nitrate and Sulfate)
H Pylori is considered a ____ in reference to oxygen consumption
microaerophiles
____ of the ETC makes H2O while pumping 2 or 4 H+ across the membrane.
Ubiquinol Oxidase
What is the difference between closed and open systems in reference to bacterial cultures?
Closed system – nutrient are not renewed, waste products are not removed

Open system – nutrients are added, waste products removed (maintains state of continuous growth)
What are the two major categories of bacteria based on carbon source?
Heterotrophs (utilize organic carbon)

Autotrophs (fix carbon dioxide) - they play a Major role in the cycling of carbon in the environment
Where do chemotrophs get their energy from?
harvest energy from metabolizing chemical compounds


Along with organic compounds such as sugars, prokaryotes are capable of obtaining energy from such compounds as hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen gas, iron
_____ Derive energy from sunlight and fixes carbon dioxide to make organic compounds. Because these organic compounds are required by many organisms, this group is classified as _____
Photoautotrophs

Primary producers
_____ Utilize inorganic compounds for energy and fixes carbon dioxide to form organic compounds
Chemolithoautotrophs


They are known in live in adverse environments where inorganic compounds are of abundance.
Chemolithoautotrophs are considered ___, along with photoautotrophs
primary producers
Halophiles are ___ loving
salt
What are the phases of the growth curve?
Lag phase
Exponential phase (or log phase)
Stationary phase
Death phase
Phase of prolonged decline
The ____ phase occurs when cells have exhausted their supply of nutrients
stationary
What is the subunit called that is found on RNA polymerase that recognizes the promoter region?
Sigma factor
RNA is synthesized in the _ to _ direction
5' to 3'
Translation requires 3 major components, what are they?
mRNA, ribosomes, and tRNAs
tRNA contains an ____, which codes for a particular amino acid
anticodon
Genetic transfer between bacteria is accomplished by three mechanisms, what are they?
DNA mediated transformation
Transduction
Conjugation
___ is when DNA is transferred as "naked DNA"
DNA mediated transformation
___ is when bacterial DNA is transferred by a virus
transduction
___ is when DNA is transferred from one cell to another by direct contact
Conjugation
In generalized transduction, Only ___ DNA is present in the transducing virions
bacterial
What is the difference between viral progeny in specialized transduction and viral progeny in generalized transduction?
In specialized, all viral progeny have some bacterial DNA with it. This little piece of bacteria renders the virus useless.
In generalized, most viral progeny is normal except one which contains only bacterial DNA
Conjugation involves the transfer of an extra circular piece of DNA called a ____
plasmid
Streptococci, Neisseria, Moraxella and other bacteria found in the human intestinal tract are considered ___ and ___ ___.
facultative and strict anaerobes
___ are a set of criteria for determining the cause of a disease
Koch's Postulates
A ____ pathogen is a microbe that is able to cause disease in an otherwise healthy individual.
Primary
A ___ pathogen is a microbe that is only able to cause disease when the host's innate or adaptive defenses are compromised, or when introduced into an unusual location
Opportunistic

(such as pseudopneumonas)
___ is the degree of pathogenicity of an organism
Virulence
Intestinal bacteria that can manufacture vitamin K and B vitamins in exchange for a compatible environment are an example of what type of host-microbe interaction?
Mutualism
Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridrium are an example of what type of host-microbe interaction? In this case, Staph uses oxygen, and clostridium will benefit after all the oxygen is consumed?
Commensalism

An association in which one partner benefits but the other remains unharmed
What is parasitism?
An association in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other organism.
What are the basic steps for which microbes have to do in order to cause disease?
Breach (some sort of Barrier)
Evade (immune systems)
Replicate (spread)
Transmission (from one host to another)
How does Streptolysin O damage the host cell?
By releasing exotoxins that insert into membranes forming pores
Membrane damaging toxins include ___, that remove the polar heads of phospholipids.
phospholipases
What are helminths?
Multicellular eukaryotic (metazoa) infectious agents. They are worms
How are protozoa classified?
on the basis of mode of reproduction and locomotive organelles
What are some examples of rhizopods?
What are the organelles of locomotion for this class of protozoa?
How does this protozoa reproduce?
Entamoeba histolytica
Acanthamoeba spp.

Pseudopods

Binary fission
What are some examples of Ciliates?
What are the organelles of locomotion for this class of protozoa?
How does this protozoa reproduce?
Balantidium coli
Cilia
Binary Fission
What are some examples of flagellates?
What are the organelles of locomotion for this class of protozoa?
How does this protozoa reproduce?
Giardia lambia
Trichomonas vaginalis

Flagella

Binary Fission
What are some examples of soprozoa?
What are the organelles of locomotion for this class of protozoa?
How does this protozoa reproduce?
Plasmodium spp
Toxoplasma gondii

No organelles of locomotion

Reproduces via schizogony/sporogony
What type of protozoa is a kinetoplastid?
What special characteristics do they have?
A flagellate protozoa

Characteristics: the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body
a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body
What are some examples of Kinetoplastids?
Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness)

Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)

Leishmania spp (Leishmaniais)
Flagellates divide by ___
longitudinal binary fission
Ciliates divide by ___
transverse binary fission
How are helminths classified?
on the basis of body & alimentary tract configuration, nature of the reproductive system, number of intermediate hosts required to complete the life cycle.
A round worm, aka ___ is _ shaped, has a _ alimentary tract, and all but ___ are considered ____.
Nematode
spindle shaped
tubular
schistosoma group
hermaphrodite
A tapeworm, aka ___ has a head with a _ body, it has _ alimentary tract, _ sexes, and _ intermediate hosts.
cestode
segmented body
no
separate sexes
one
A fluke, aka __ is _ shaped with __. It has a _ alimentary tract, _ intermediate hosts, and are ____
trematode
leaf shaped with oral and ventral suckers
blind,
2,
hermaphroditic
Scolex is an example of a ___
Cestode
Loa Loa, round worm, and woucherarria spp are examples of ____
nematodes
Schistosoma, and E granulosus are examples of ___
trematodes
What bug is associated with Babesiosis?
Ticks
What bug is associated with Chaga disease?
Riduviid Bug
What bug is associated with Loa Loa (eye worm)?
Crysops fly
What is the common name for Dermatobia hominis? What does this parasite do?
Bot fly

It is a type of myiasis that lays their larvae in wounds.
How can you classify hosts based on the life cycle of a parasite?
Definitive and Intermediate
Plasmodium (malaria) is transmitted from human to human by the bite of a mosquito. Which is the definitive host, and which is the intermediate host?
Mosquitos are the definitive,
Humans are the intermediate
Parasitic infections tend to be (acute/chronic) and _ term.
Chronic
Long term
What is the most common parasitic infection world wide?
Intestinal round worms (1.4 Billion)
What are the biggest parasitic killers?
Malaria (2.1 million)
Round worm and hookworms
Trichinella species can be found is what type of tissue?
muscle
Onchocerca species can be found in what type of tissue?
skin
__ are used to detect P falciparum, T. Cruzi, T brucei, Oncocerca spp, and agents of lymphatic filariasis.
DNA probe
Antihelminthic drugs compromise the worms __ pathways or _ function.
glycolytic pathways

neuromuscular function
Sexual reproduction of protozoas is mediated by _ followed by _
fusion of gametes

chromosomal recombination
what is the ideal chemotherapeutic drug like?
- effective in a single dose

■ easily administered

■ safe enough to be dispensed with limited medical supervision

■ relatively inexpensive to be widely used