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16 Cards in this Set

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hypernatremia-145
risk factors;
1.diarrhea
2excess salt intake
3.heat stroke
4. hyperventilation
5. loss of fluids
6. water deprivation

maifestations:
1.convulsions
2.decrease LOC
3. disorientation
4. fatigue
5.thirst
6. tongue,dry& red,swollen
7.weakness
hyponatremia-<135
risk factors:
1. aids
2. diuretics
3.drinking water
4.excess iv d5w
5.gi fluid loss
6. head injury
7.hypotonic tube feedings
8. malignant tumors
9. sweating
manifestations:
1. abd cramps
2.anorexia
3.apprehension
4. coma
5.confusion
6.headache
7.lethargy
8. muscle twithching
9. nausea
10. seizures
11. vomiting
hypokalemia-<3.5
risk factors:
1.diarrhea
2.diuretics
3. gastric suctioning
4. heavy perspiration
5. hyperaldosteronism
6. vomiting
manifestations:
1. abg's may show alkalosis
2. anorexia
3. cardiac disrhythmia
4. decreased bowel sounds
5. fatigue
6. leg cramps
7. lethargy
8. muscle weakness
9. n/v
hyperkalemia->5.0
risk factors-
1.excess or rapid infusions of k
2. hypoaldosterone
3. renal failure
manifestations-
1. apathy
2. confusion
3. diarrhea
4. gi hyperactivity
5. irritability
6. muscle weakness
hypocalcemia-<4.5
risk factors-
1.acute pancreatitis
2. alcohol abuse
3. alkalosis
4. hyperphosphotemia
5.hypoparathyroidism
6. inadequate vit d intake
7. malabsorption
8. sepsis
9. thyroid carcinoma
manifestations-
1. cramps
2. numb tingling extremeties
hypercalcemia->5.5
risk factors-
1. pagets disease
2. malignancy of bone
manifestations-
1. anorexia
2.constipation
3. dysrhythmias
4. lethargy
5. n/v
6. polyuria
7. weakness
hypochloremia-<95
manifestations-
1. excess loss of ca through the gi tract, kidneys or sweating
hyperchloremia>105
manifestations-
1. acidosis
2. coma
3. letargy
4. risk for dysrhythmias
5. weakness
hypomagnesium<1.5
manifestations-
1.adrenal insufficiently
2. chronic alcholism
3. chvostek
4. neuromuscular irritability
5. renal failure
6. trosseau's sign

risk factors-
1. burns
2.chronic alcohol abuse
3. excessive loss from gi tract
4. long term diuretic use
5. pancreatitis
hypermagnesium>2.5
risk factors-
1. abnormal retention of magnesium
2. adrenal insuff
3. renal failure
manifestations-
1. bradycardia
2.decrease b/p
3. muscle weakness
4. n/v
5. parlysis
hypophostemia-<2.5
risk factors-
1.acid/base imbalance
2. alcohol withdrawl
3. glucose and inulin
4. TPN can cause phosphate to shift into the cells from ecf
compartment
manifestation-
1.mental changes
2. muscle weakness
3. pain
4. possible seizures
hyperphosphatemia>4.5
risk factors-
phosphate shifts out of cells-
A. tissue trauma
B. chemo
C. renal failure
D, infants fed cow milk
manifestations-
1.muscle spasms
2.tetany
3. tingling around the mouth & fingertips
respiratory acidosis
risk factors-alveolar gas exchange impairement. Lungs can't get enough o2.
1. confusion
2. convulsions
3. decrease loc
4. dizziness
5.h/a
6.increase heart&resp rate
assess:
resp status
2. lung sounds
3. monitor airway
4.i&o
5. v/s
6. abg's
7. narc antagonist's
8. maintain adequate hydration
respiratory alkolsis
hypervenilation-blowing off to much co2
1.c/o sob
2. chest tightness
3.blurred vision
monitor-
1. v/s
2.abg's
3. assist client to breath more slowly
4. breath in paper bag or apply rebreather mask to inhale co2
metabolic acidosis
too much acid accumulation in the body
1. kussmaul's rsp(deep amd rapid)
2. lethargic
3. confuson
4. h/a
5. weakness
6.n/v
monitor:
1.i&o
2.loc
3.v/s
4.admin iv sodium bicarb carefully
5. treat underlying prob
metabolic alkolsis
to much base accumulation in the body
1. decreased rate and depth
2. dizziness
3. hypertonic muscles
monitor:
1.i&o
2.loc
3. v/s
4.iv fluids