Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/20

Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is phosphocreatine
NRG reservoir: makes ADP into ATP by adding a phosphate (phosphorylation), cells store 4-6x more Pcr than ATP.
What is meant by free energy when discussing ATP usage during rapid movement?
E available for work, Hydrolysis forms ADP when ATP joins w/ water (catalyzed by ATPase), releasing free E.
What are the 3 stages of ATP production?
Glycolysis
Citric Acid Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
Why is ATP storage limited?
It resynthesizes at the rate of use (the imbalance causes the body to use some other stored E form), it is a heavier molecule, the response to cellular metabolism changes concentration quickly.
What are the 2 carrier molecules needed for ATP production via electron transport?
NAD and FAD
What is oxidative phosphorylation?
producing ATP by passing electrons from carrier molecules to oxygen.
3 Prerequisites for Continual Resynthesis of ATP during coupled oxidative phosphorylation
1. availability of reducing agent in tissue
2. presence of oxidizing agent
3. sufficient concentration of enzymes and mitochondria
Does glucose or trigylceride produce more ATP?
trigylceride (produces 460 ATPs)
What molecule temporarily binds with hydrogen ions to form lactate?
Pyruvate
What does lactate formation allow?
Temporary continuation of ATP resynthesis until oxygen is available.
What enzyme can limit the rate of glycolysis during maximal effort exercise?
the lack of PFK
What important step does this enzyme form?
Locks glucose into the cell, which later reacts and becomes pyruvate
What type of training improves lactate turnover/removal?
Endurance training increases mitochondrial and capillary density
Sprinting/power training increases lactate tolerance
Lactate is sent to the heart and other muscle cells for renewable E: True or False
True
High intensity training increases lactate tolerance by: (3)
1. improved motivation
2. increased intramuscular glycogen stores
3. Increased glycolytic enzymes, particularly PFK
When discussing oxygen uptake during exercise, a steady state is achieved when: (3)
1. O2 demand is met by O2 delivery.
2. Balance btw E need and production
3. Blood lactate doesn't accumulate
Why do aerobically trained individuals reach a steady state faster than sedentary individuals? (3)
1. more rapid increase in cardiac output (blood flow)
2. Higher percentage of blood directed to active muscle (cxapillary density)
3. Training induced cellular adaptations such as enzymes and mitochondrial density
What amounts of PFK, mitochondrial density, and cappilarization occur in a Type I fiber?
-lowest PFK
-High mitochondrial density
-High capillarization
What amounts of PFK, mitochondrial density, and cappilarization occur in a type IIA fiber?
-more PFK
-Moderate mitochondrial density
-moderate capillarization
What amounts of PFK, mitochondrial density, and cappilarization occur in a type IIB fiber?
-most PFK
-low mitochondrial density
-low capillarization