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41 Cards in this Set

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AFDC
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (1950). Contorversial because most recipients were single partents who had children out of wedlock births and it led to lives dependent of welfare. Reformed in 1988 by the Family Chikd Support Act which sought to move people off wellfare and into productive jobs.
agenda
A set of issues to be discussed or given attention
agenda setting
The constant process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government
AMA
American Medical Association
authoritative implementation techniques
Implementation: process of carrying out pulic policy through governmental agencies and the courts. Authoritative techniques: people's actions must be directed or restratined by the government in order to prevent or eliminate activites or products that are unsafe, unfair, evil, or immoral. imposing safety/decency standards, rules, regulations, and inforcing compliance via inspections, monitoring, and penalities
capacity implementation techniques
provide people with information,education,training, or resources that will enable them to undertake desired activities. Assumption that people have the incentive or desire to do what is right but lack the capacity to act accordingly. Includes job training and financial assistence.
charter schools
Public school sanctioned by a specific agreement that allows the program to operate outside the usual rules and regulations
EITC
The Earned Income Tax Credit Program was designed to help the working poor. It was created in 1975, and it helps the poor by subsidizing their wages and providing an incentive for people to work. It is described as "pro-work" and "pro-family" and supported by both Democrats and Republicans. Its intent was to enhancce the value of working and encourage families to move from welfare to work. Advocates believed that it would enhance spending and the economy. EITC would also increase the work incentives among the welfare population and refund indirectly part or all of the Social Security taxes paid by workers with low incomes.
entitlement program
Income security program to which all those meeting eligibility criteria are entitled.
governmental aganda
The changind list of issues to which governments believe they should address themselves.
HMO
The arrangment between insurance companies and certain health care providers.
hortatory implementation techniques
Encourages people to comply with policies by appealing to people's "better instincts" in an effort to get them to act in desired ways.
incentive implementation techniques
Based on the assumption that people are utility maximizers who act in their own best intrests and must be provided with payoffs or financial inducements to get them to comply with public policies.
local control of schools
historical precedent (dating back to Massachusetts Bay) where local community is responsible for education system; good because small areas are aware of and concerned with local problems; bad because funding comes from higher levels and is often disproportionate to need (since funding from states doesn’t consider city issues)
means-tested program
Income security program intended to assist those whose incomes fall below a designated level.
Medicaid
An expansion of Medicare that subsidizes medical care for the poor.
Medicare
A federal program established by LBJ administration that provides medical care to elderly Social Security recipients.
national health insurance
Advocated in 1945 by President Harry S Truman, this call to place health insurance on the national policy agenda touched of an enormous political struggle. The initial public reaction was in favour of compulsory health insurance, mostly from liberal and labor groups. Opposition came from the AMA, drug manufacturers, private insurance companies and onservatives. By 1950, compulsory health insurance was a dead issue.
New Deal social welfare programs
Government programs designed to improve quality of life.
NIH
The National Institutes of Health that expends more than $10 billion annually on biomedical research appropriated by Congress.
No Child Left Behind Act
The Law established in 2002 that agreed to improve the educational opportunities for every American child, regardless of ethnicity, income or background.
non-means-based program
Program such as Social Security where benefits are provided irrespective of the income or means of the recipient.
policy adoption
The approval of a policy proposal by the people with requisite authority, such as a legislature.
policy evaluation

policy formulation
The crafting of appropriate and acceptable proposed courses of action to ameliorate or resolve public problems.
policy implementation
The process of carrying out public policy through governmental agencies and the courts.
prescription drug benefit plan
Included in Medicaid, but not Medicare.
public policy
A purposive course of action followed by government in dealing with some problem or matter of concern.
School finance/equitable funding
While federal funding for education is less than 10% of education spending, federal interest and intervention in the schools seems to be increasing.
school vouchers
Federal money given to public institutions so that they can become better schools. Some believe that competition and the free market can solve the problems of public schools and have championed voucher plans and charter schools.
Social Security Act
A 1935 law that established old-age insurance (Social Security) and assistance for the needy, children, and others, and unemployment insurance.
Social Security reform

social welfare policy
Government programs designed to improve quality of life.
socialized medicine
A government-regulated system for providing health care for all by means of subsidies derived from taxation.
SSI
The Supplemental Security Income began under the Social Security Act as a categorical grant in aid program to help the needy, aged, and blind. In 1950, it was extended to needy people who are permanently disabled. The grants are financed jointly by the state and national governments, but the states play a key role in determining who is eligible for aid.
student loan programs

systematic agenda
All public issues that are viewed as requireing governmental attention; a discussion agenda.
TANF
A welfare plan that Clinton enacted during his first term, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program emphasized the government's shift to temporary assistance as layed out in the Republicans' Contract with America. Some significant features include: single mothers with a child over five years old must be working within two years of receiving benefits; unmarried mothers under the age of 18 are required to live with an adult and attend school in order to receive benefits; there is a five year lifetime limit for aid from block grants; mothers must provide information about a child's father in order to recieve full welfare payments; it cuts off food stamps and Supplemental Security Income for legal immigrants; it cuts off cash welfare benefits and food stamps for convicted drug felons; food stamps are limited to three months in a three year period for people 18-50 who are not raising children and working.
uemplyment insurance
A monetary compensation system for unemployed workers that is funded by an unemployment tax placed on employers
welfare reform
The provision for redistributive benefits such as education and health services by the state.
WIC
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Infant Formula Cost Containment Requirements