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38 Cards in this Set

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age cohort
Group or band of people with the same age
age composition of US population
Changes with population trends. Graying of America- Baby boomers, fastest growing group in the US, entering retirement. Generation Xers- graduated from college in the late 1980s into hard economic time, liberal. Generation Y-ers, born 1979-1994, optimistic, grew up in good economy, internet savy. Trends predict gap between lots of young people and few old people will level out in the next 10-20 yrs
aristocracy
A system of government in which control is based on the rule of the wealthiest, most landed, or most prestigious class in society and that the heirs will inherit these possessions and powers in the next generation
capitalism
economic system that favors private control of business and minimal governmental regulation of private industry
civil society
Society created when citizens are allowed to organize and ex press their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy. Civil society is the entire intricate web of spontaneous and planned relationships that individuals and groups form to advance their own interests and goals; it is not controlled, though it may be protected and supervised, by the government
communism
An economic system in which workers own the means of production and control the distribution of resources
conservative
One thought to believe that a government is best that governs least ans the big government can only infringe on individual, personal and economic rights
covenant
Separatists broke away from the Church of England in the late sixteenth century, and they believed that they could speak one-on-one to God. The separatists thought that this ability allowed them to participate directly in governing their own assemblies. They created self-governing congregations, and much of the first appearance of self-governance in the form of social compacts came from these people. The Mayflower Compact was one of the self-governing socities brought to America. The Pilgrims called it a covenant, and its form was similar to other common religious covenants.
democracy
A system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through their elected representatives.
demographics
Demographics is the information on characteristics of America's population. The population of America has been changing constantly because of immigrants. Immigration peaked in the first decade of the 1900s, and the country did not see a major wave of immigration again until the late 1980s. The average age of Americans is also changing; the U.S. population is getting much older. Family size and household arrangements also have changed from the past. Large families are no longer the norm, but instead there are small families, often with single parents.
direct democracy
A system of government in which members of the polity meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule. The Ne England town meeting, where all citizens meet to discuss and decide issues facing the town is an example of direct democracy.
free market economy
The economic system in which the "invisable hand" of the market regulates prices, wages, product mix, and so on.
House of Burgesses
The first representative body in the US. This was the representative body for Virginia that began meeting in the 1620's.
indirect [representative] democracy
a system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will vote on their behalf
individualism
focus on strength of each person; the idea that government should serve to aid the individual to attain his utmost potential and development
John Locke
philosopher whose ideas are ingrained in U.S. political structure; believed in preservation of private property;believd in limited, constitutional government whose primary purpose was the protection of "life, liberty, and property"; believed that people’s consent enabled ruler to rule; believed that if governments did not sufficiently protect the rights of the people, they had the right to revolutionary overthrow of government; believed in dominance of legislative branch
Karl Marx/Marxism
German philosopher, wrote Communist Manifesto/stages of Marxism included feudalism, capitalism, socialism, and communism; believed that the workers were the rightful owners of the means of production; that capitalism would cause its own self-destruction
laissez-faire
A french term literally meaning "to allow to do, to leave alone", It is hands-off governmental policy that is based on the belief that governmental regulation of the economy is wrong
liberal
a person for government intervention in economy, for social services, for activism in areas of women, elderly, minorities, environment; believes that government should take an active role in its citizens’ welfare
libertarian
a person who believes in free-market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties
majority rule
idea of democracy; the voters’ majority choices, either made directly by themselves or indirectly through their representative,s will be made into law
mercantile system
A system that binds trade and its administration to the national government. It is based on the theory that there is a finite amount of wealth and that all increase in national prosperity comes at the expense of some other country; that the goal of all national economic policy should be to maximize exports and to minimize imports.; and that all colonies exist to benefit the mother colony.
minority rights
Freedoms, although not based on majority rule, that are preserved by the American system--many of which were granted following the 1960's during the civil rights movement. The rights of minorities (originally the large property holders) were based on their natural rights to life, liberty, and property, and that no one would willingly consent to be parted with these rghts, so that all majorities, no matter how large or how threatened, are morally and legally bound to respect these rights.
monarchy
A form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens.
natural law
A doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason.
oligarchy
A form of governernment in which the right to participate is always conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military status or achievement.
personal liberty
A key characteristic of U.S. democracy. Initially meaning freedom from governmental interference, today it incluedes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental discrimination.
pluralism
"A condition in which numerous distinct ethnic, religious, or cultural groups are present and tolerated within a society.
political culture
Attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system.
political ideology
AN individual's coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government.
politics
the process by which policy decisions are made.
popular consent
The idea that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed.
popular sovereignty
the right of the majority to govern themselves; also the term used by those who favored white settlers determining for themselves in state constitutional conventions whether or not they will legally permit slavery; commitment to this did not favor one outcome over another; it ignored any natural right by all humans to freedom and self-determination; Stephan A. Douglas of Illinois was its principal exponent during the period 1848-1861.
republic
A government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy
social contract theory
The belief that people are free and equal by God-given right and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
socialism
An economic system that advocates for collective ownership and control of the means of production.
Thomas Hobbes
developed theory that characterized humans as selfishly individualistic and constantly at war with each other and believed that people must surrender themselves to rulers in exchange for protection
totalitarianism
A modern form of despotic rule in which the state undertakes to remake society according to an ideological design by totaling dominating all important civil, political, and economic institutions