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77 Cards in this Set

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What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A,E,D,K

**"KADE"
What is a compound that can be converted into an active vitamin?
Vitamin A
Pigment materials in fruits and vegetables that range in color from yellow to orange to red.
Carotenoids
Orange pigment found in plants
Beta-carotene
Chemically related compounds with biological activity similar to that of retinol. Which Vitamin?
Retinoid

Vitamin A
What are the 3 roles of Vitamin A in the body?
1. Promote vision
2. participate in protein synthesis and cell differentiation
3. support reproduction and growth.
What role does Vitamin A play in vision?
Helps to maintain a clear outer window (cornea) and converts light energy into nerve impulses at the retina.
What deficiencies are related to vitamin A?
*Infectious disease
*Night blindness
*Total blindness
*Keratinization
What is the RDA of vitamin A for men? For women?
Men: 900 ug RAE/day
Women: 700 ug RAE/day

**UL= 3000 ug/day
What are the chief functions of Vitamin A in the body?
Vision, maintenance of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous membranes, skin bone and tooth grown, reproduction
What are some significant sources of Vitamin A?
Retinol: fortified milk, cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver
Beta-carotene: spinach and other dark leafy greens, broccoli, deep orange fruits and vegetables
What is a deficiency disease related to Vitamin A?
Hypovitaminosis A
What are the symptoms of Hypovitaminosis A? (3)
*Night blindness,corneal drying
*Grey spots on eye
*softening of cornea
What toxicity disease is related to Vitamin A?
HypERvitaminosis A (not hypOcitaminosis)
What are the Chronic Toxicity symptoms of Hypervitaminosis A? The Acute Toxicity symptoms?
Chronic: increased activity of osteoclasts (bone density,liver abnormalities,birth defects)
Acute:blurred vision, nauseam vomiting,pressure in skull
What is the skin percursor of Vitamin D?
PREvitamin D
What are other methods by which Vitamin D can enter the skin?
By sunlight
What deficiency disease is related to Vitamin D?
Rickets in children
Osteomalacia in Adults
What are the symptoms of Rickets? (4)
-bowing of legs
-deformed ribs
-enlargement of head
-enlargement of long bones
What are symptoms of Osteomalacia? (2)
-soft,flexible,brittle, deformed bones
-pain in pelvis, lower back and legs.
What are the chief functions of Vitamin E in the body? (3)
Antioxidant:
-Stabilize cell membranes
-Regulate oxidation rxns
-Protect polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin A
What are some significant sources of Vitamin E? (8)
-polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine,shortening,salad dressing)
-leafy green vegetables
-wheat germ
-whole grain
-liver
-egg YOLK
-nuts
-seeds
What are the chief functions of Vitamin K?
Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone proteins
What are some significant sources of Vitamin K? (5)
-Bacterial synthesis in digestive tract
-liver
-leafy green vegetables
-Cabbage-type vegetables
-Milk
How much of the body is comprised of water?
50-70%
How much water does lean muscle tissue contain?
~73%
How much water does fat contain?
~20%
Fluid between the cells
Interstitial
Fluid within the blood stream and lymph
Intravascular
What are the chief functions of water? (5)
-Metabolic processes
-Solvent
-Body Temperature regulation
-Removal of body waste
-Amniotic fluid, joint lubricants, saliva, bile
*What 3 ways can water be excreted from the body?
-Urine
-Water absorbes excess heat
-Sweat
The passage of a solvent (water) through a semi-permeable membrane from a less concentrated compartment to a more concentrated compartment.
Osmosis
What 2 hormones are involved in water and electrolyte balance?
Antidiuretic(ADH) and Aldosterone
A hormone that is secreted by the pituitary gland and acts on the kidneys to cause a decrease in water excretion.
Antidiuretic (ADH)
A hormone produced in the adrenal gland that acts on the kidneys, causing them to retain water.
Aldosterone
Substances that break down into ions in water and, in turn, are able to conduct an electrical current.
Electrolytes
What 3 things do electrolytes do?
-Charge ions
-Attract water
-Function to regulate water balance
What are the body's major electrolytes?
Sodium, chloride and potassium
Of the major electrolytes, which are extracellular and which are intracellular?
Extracellular: sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-)
Intracellular: Potassium (K)
*Which 3 electrolytes cause nerve impulses?
sodium, potassium (extra)
Calcium (intra?)
What is Hyponatremia?
A decrease concentration of sodium in the blood that results in confusion, convulsions and death.
What mineral is Hyponatremia associated with?
Sodium
What are minerals? (4 factors)
-Inorganic substances
-Needed in tiny amounts
-Not destroyed in cooking
-Yields no energy
What are 2 examples of cofactors of minerals?
Copper and selenium
What is an example of mineral components of body compounds?
Iron in hemoglobin (red blood cells)
What are 2 examples of minerals for body growth and development?
calcium and phosphorous
What are the 3 minerals involved in water and electrolyte balance?
Sodium, chloride and potassium
Name the 7 Major Minerals
-Calcium
-Chloride
-Magnesium
-Phosphorous
-Potassium
-Sodium
-Sulfur
(CCMPPSS)
Name the 9 Trace Minerals
-Chromium
-Copper
-Fluoride
-Iodide
-Iron
-Manganese
-Molybdenum
-Selenium
-Zinc
(CCfIIMMSZ)
What is the difference between trace and major minerals?
Trace: daily need <100mg
Major: Daily need >100mg
What regulates sodium balance
Aldosterone
What is the ratio of Na and Cl in table salt?
Na= 40%
Cl= 60%
What is the daily value of sodium?
2400 mg/day
How much sodium is needed for the body?
100 mg/day
What diseases are related to an increase in sodium levels?
High Blood Pressure
Uncontrolled Hypertension
What minerals can reduce blood pressure?
Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), and Calcium (Ca+)
What minerals are involved in bone structure? (4)
Phosphorous
Magnesium
Fluoride
Sodium
What are some chief functions of Calcium? (5)
-Regulate muscle/muscle contraction
-Clot blod
-Nerve impulses
-Secrete hormones
-Activate enzymes
Which mineral activates Calmoudulin, which relays messages from the cell surface to the inside of the cell, helping to mainting blood pressure.
Calcium
What is a deficiency related to Calcium?
Osteoporosis
What are significant sources of calcium? (4)
-Dairy
-Kale, collard, mustard greens
-Tofu (if made from calcium carbonate)
-Canned fish
What are the chief functions of Phosphorous?
-Mineralization of bones/teeth
-Genetic Material
-Phospholipids,DNA,RNA,ATP
-Used in energy transfer and buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance
What are significant sources of Phosphorous?
Dairy (milk,cheese,yogurt)
Cereal,bran
eggs
nuts
fish
meat
What mineral is found in minimal amount in every cell?
Iron
What are significant sources of Iron? (4)
Red meat
Enriched grain
Fortified cereal
Iron skillet
What is a poor source of iron?
Milk
What disease is related to Iron deficiency? symptoms?
Anemia
Paleness, brittle nails, fatigue, difficulty breathing
Which vitamin enhances the absorption of Iron?
C
What are the chief functions of Iodide?
A component of 2 thyroid hormones:
-Regulate growth
-Regulate development
-Regulate metabolic rate
What deficiency disease is related to Iodide? symptoms? (3)
Goiter:
-underactive thyroid gland
-goiter
-mental/physical retardation
What are the chief functions of Copper? (2)
-The absorption and use of iron in the form of hemoglobin
-Part of several enzymes
what deficiencies are related to copper?
Anemia, bone abnormalities, Wilson's disease
What are the 5 significant sources of Copper?
Seafood
nuts
whole grain
seeds
legumes
What do toxic levels of copper do to children?
Liver damage (Wilson's disease)
What are the chief functions of Zinc? (5)
-Cofactor to enzymes
-synthsis of nucleic acid
-Protein and alcohol metabolism
-wound healing
-develope sexual organs and bones
What are significant sources of zinc?
-Animal products
-Shellfish
-Legume,nut,wholegrain
What is a protein that binds and regulates the release of zinc and copper in intestinal and liver cells?
Metallothionein