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74 Cards in this Set

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Chemical processes in the body that provide energy in useful forms and sustain vital activities.
what are -C-C- bonds
Fatty acid synthesis
what are O
-C-N- bonds?
protein synthesis
what are -C-N- bonds?
Urea synthesis
what are -C-O- bonds?
Triglyceride synthesis
_____ pathways build compounds
Energy must be expended for ____ processes to take place.
______ pathways break down compounds into smaller units.
The complete catabolism of glucose results in the release of ______ and ______
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O).
energy is released in this process; some is trapped for cell use and the rest is lost as heat.
The form of energy that cells generally use for chemical, mechanical, electrical and osmotic processes.
****What is the difference b/t ATP and ADP?

ATP stores and yields energy. ADP is the lower energy source.
What are 3 roles of the liver?
1.Vascular functions:including formation of lymph and the hepatic phagocytic system.
2.Metabolic achievements:in control of synthesis and utilization o/ carbs, lipids and proteins.
3.Secretory and excretory functions:particularly with respect to the synthesis of secretion of bile.
________ reactions include the making of glycogen, triglycerine and protein. these reactions require differing amount of protein.
_______ reactions include the breakdown of glycogen, triglycerine and protein. Most of the energy released is captured in the bonds of ATP.
A common high-energy storage compound in the body.
Why are the phosphate groups of ATP referred to as 'high energy'?
Due to its readiness to release energy.
What are the 6 jobs of the liver for Carbohydrates?
1.converts fructose and galactose to glucose.
2.Converts excess glucose to fatty acids
3.makes glucose from amino acids
4.breaks down glucose for energy
5.makes and stores glycogen
6.breaks down glycogen and releases glucose.
What are the 5 jobs of the liver for Lipids?
1.builds and breaks down triglycerides,phospholipids and cholesterol.
2.breaks down fatty acids for energy
3.packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other organs
4.manufactures bile to send to gallbladder for fat digest
5.makes ketone bodies
What are the 5 jobs of the liver for Proteins?
1.manufactures nonessential amino acids.
2.removes excess amino acids and deanimates or converts them
3.removes ammonia from blood and converts it to urea
4.makes nitrogen-containing compound the body needs (bases for DNA or RNA)
5.makes plasma proteins (clotting factors)
What are some *other* roles of the liver
*detoxifies alcohol, drugs and poisons
*dismantle old red blood cells and captures iron for recycling.
*stores most vitamins and many minerals.
The metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate.
What happens in the aerobic (oxygen -requiring) pathway of glycolysis?
*Pyruvate-to-acetyl CoA
1.requires oxygen expenditure proceeds at lower pace.
3.ex: long bike ride
What happens in the anaerobic pathway of glycolysis?
*Pyruvate-to-lactic acid
1.not requiring oxygen
2.occurs when body needs energy quickly
3.ex: sprinting a 1/4 mile
Why is pyruvate to acetal CoA referred to as a one-way reaction?
b4 the citric acid cycle can begin, pyruvate must lose a carbon dioxide group and eventually form acetyl-CoA. this overall rxn. is irreversible.
Can be used to make glucose
Cannot be used to make glucose
The generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine).
The breakdown of triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids. (Fat Breakdown)
The formation of lipid by the building of fatty acids using derivatives of acetyl-CoA
What energy yielding nutrients can be converted into fat?
proteins (amino acids)
Carbs (glucose)
Lipids (fatty acids)
Lipids (glycerol)
What roles does the ETC play?
1.High energy compounds (glucose) give up electrons and hydrogen ions to NAD+ and FAD.
2.The NADH + H+ and FADH2 are formed and transfer these electrons and hydrogen ions to oxygen to form H2O.
3.The energy yielded by the entire process generates ATP from ADP and Pi.
Why is ETC oxidized?
Because it is losing electrons to form the ATP.
A sequence of chemical reactions used by cells to convert the carbons of acetate to carbon dioxide and to yield energy.
Citric Acid Cycle
What happens in the Citric Acid Cycle?
Acetyl-CoA enters the cycle, and the reactions eventually yield 2 molecules of CO2. This produces NADH + H+ and other molecules which are used to form many ATP.
What are glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids converted to before entering the citric acid cycle?
*** GO BACK!
1.What amino acids can be converted to glucose?(use terms)
2.Where do these amino acids enter into the energy pathway?
1.Glucogenic, gycerol, lactate, pyruvate
What is an example of a catabolic pathway?
The catabolism of glucose that results in the release of CO2 and H2O. Energy is released in this process: some trapped for cell use and some lose as heat.
Show how Niacin NAD+ is reduced
NAD+ ----> NADH + H+
Oxygen is _______ to form water.
Which two organs can produce their own glucose from amino acids?
Liver and Kidney cells
NADH + H+ is a form of _____ _______ for the cell.
Potential energy
What are the 2 roles of glycolysis?
1. Degrade monosaccharides to create energy
2. Provide buliding blocks for synthesizing needed cell compounds (such as glycerol for triglyceride synthesis).
When is anaerobic glycolysis the only available method for making ATP?
For cells that lack mitochondria (such as red blood cells). The lactate is released into the bloodstream, picked up by the liver and synthesized into glucose.
A 3-carbon compound formed during glucose metabolism.
How many turns around the citric acid cycle does it take to process one glucose?
What are the carbons in glucose of the citric acid cycle released as and from where?
Carbon dioxide released from the Lungs
How much of the chemical energy in glucose do cells capture during the Citric Acid Cycle? What is it transferred and used for when needed?
What happens to the remaining 60% of energy (not chemical).
it escapes as heat via all the reactions that take place in which ATP, GTP, NADH + H+, or FADH2 are not made.
Since oxygen is essential to the processes of the ETP, it is a part of the _____ Metabolism.
What is the end product(s) of the Citric Acid Cycle
yields free NAD+ and FAD, water, and ATP
When are fatty acids used by most tissues for energy?
When carbohydrates are available.
Tell whether CHO, Protein and Fats Yield: Energy; Glucose; Amino Acids and Body Proteins; and Fat stores.
Carbs(glucose): yes;yes;yes(non-essential when nitrogen is available; yes
Proteins (amino acid): yes;yes(when carb is unavailable);yes;yes
Lipids(fatty acid):yes; no;no;yes
Lipids(glycerol):yes;yes(when carb is unavailable);yes(non-ess when nitrogen is available);yes
What 4 things does fasting encourage?
1.glycogen breakdown
2.fat breakdown
4.synthesis of ketone bodies
What effects does fasting have on the body?
1.when nutrients are absent, the body draws on its glycogen and fat stores for energy (2-3 hr after meal)
2.(24 hr after meal):body begins to break down protein to amino acids to synthsize glucose needed for brain and nervous system energy. Liver converts fats to ketone bodies.
What factors is Metabolism of Alcohol dependent on?
gender; race; size; physical condition; what is eaten; alcohol content of beverage; sleep
Why can't a woman metabolize as much alcohol in the cells that line her stomach as men?
Because of low activity of ADH. Also, women have less body water to dilute the alcohol.
What is the percentages of the alcohol metabolized by a man and by a woman?
Man: 30% metabolized
Woman: 10% metabolized
Why is alcohol considered absolute priority in metabolism as a fuel source?
Because it cannot be stored in the body.
How much energy does one gram of alcohol yield?
7 kcal/g
What is the difference b/t glycerol and ethanol alcohols?
Glycerol is the alcohol used to make triglycerides. Ethanol us the alcohol in beer;wine and distilled liquors.
Name the serving sizes of:
Wine Cooler
(80 Proof) Hard Liquor
beer: 12oz
wine cooler: 10oz
wine: 5oz
hard liquor: 1.5 oz
An enzyme used in alcohol (ethanol) metabolism.
Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH)
What does ADH do?
It is the major enzyme used in the liver when alcohol is in low concentration.
When is MEOS activated?
When the liver is overwhelmed with excess amounts of alcohol it uses oxygen, NADP+ and produces water with acetaldehyde.
Why does Alcohol tolerance increase once MEOS is active?
Because the rate of alcohol metabolism increases.
Explain the 3 stages of disruption of the liver by alcohol.
Stage 1: Fatty liver
Stage 2: Fibrosis-fibrosis tissue build up
Stage 3: Cirrhosis-liver cells die and form scar tissue.
What are certain nutrition deficiencies due to alcoholism?
deficiency in:
*Water soluble vitamins (thiamin;niacin;vit B-6 B-12 C; folate
*Fat soluble vitamins
*interferrrence with nutrient metabolism
What is the effect of alcohol on pregnancy?
Fetal Alcohol Sydrome (FAS)
If drinking continues within the first month of pregnancy, the chances of delivering and infant with FAS increases.
A group of irreversible physical and mental abnormalities in the infant that result from the mother's consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
What are the benefits of moderate alcohol intake?
*social aspects
*reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases
*reduced risk of Ischemic stroke
What is considered to be "moderate" alcohol intake?
one drink a day for men and slightly less than one for women.
Where is alcohol metabolized?
In the liver and other tissues.
A stroke caused by the absence of blood flow to a part of the brain.
Ischemic Stroke.