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67 Cards in this Set

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The state in which energy intake, in the form of food and/or alcohol, matches the energy expended, primarily through basal metabolism and physical activity.
Energy Balance
The state in which energy intake is greater than energy expended, generally resulting in weight gain.
(energy consumed > energy expended)
Positive Energy Balance
The state in which energy intake is less than energy expended, resulting in weight loss.
(energy consumed < energy expended)
Negative Energy Balance
What is the equation given for energy balance?
energy consumed - energy expended.
What is an example of positive energy balance?
Pregnancy; Hypothalamus- Neuropeptide Y
When would someone experience negative energy balance?
When they are stressed; busy
Sensation caused by lack of food, leads to food-seeking behavior.
Hunger
Response to sight, smell, thought or taste of food that initiates or delays eating.
Appetite
Feeling of fullness occurs in a meal that stops eating.
Satiation
Feeling of satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal.
Satiety
How many kcal/g do carbs;proteins;fats and alcohol yield?
Carbs: 4 kcal/g
Proteins: 4 kcal/g
Fats: 9 kcal/g
Alcohol: 7 kcal/g
What measures the heat energy released when foods are burned, providing an estimate of the potential energy of the food?
Bomb Calorimeter
What things contribute to Basal metabolic rate? (9)
1.amt. of body surface (greater the area, greater the heat loss)
2.Gender
3.Body Temperature
4.Thyroid Hormones
5.Nervous system activity
6.Age
7.Nutritional state (eating less slows BMR)
8.Pregnancy(increases BMR)
9.Caffeine/tobacco use (increase BMR)
Energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete rest
Basal Metabolism
The rate that the body expends energy under specific conditions
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
How do you calculate the basal metabolism for men vs. women?
Men:
weight(kg)x1kcal/kg/hrx24hr
Women:
weightx0.9kcal/kg/hrx24hr
**to convert weight, divide lb by 2.2 kg
What fraction of energy expenditure is represented by BMR?
60-70%
The increase in nonvoluntary physical activity triggered by cold conditions or overeating.
Thermogenesis
The increase in metabolism occuring during the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of energy-yielding nutrients. This reperesents 5-10% of energy consumed
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
Why is the TEF value for a protein-rich meal (20-30%) higher than for a Carb(5-10%) or fat(0-5%) rich meal?
Because it takes less energy to transfer absorbed fat into adipose stores or convert glucose to glycogen than to metabolize excess amino acids into fat.
measure of energy use while at rest
Resting Metabolic rate (RMR)
What factors LOWER the BMR?
Fasting
Malnutrition
*Hormones (gender)--can either speed up or slow BMR. (PMS raises)
How is estimated energy expenditure calculated for Physical activity?
Multiply the following by Basal Metabolism given/calculated:
Sedentary:20-40%
Light Activity:55-65%
Moderate Activity:70-75%
Heavy Activity:80-100% +
ex:Carlos w/moderate activity
1680kcal/day x(.70)= 1176kcal/day
How do you calculate TEF?
Add
(Basal Metabolism + physical activity) x (10%)
ex: Carlos=
1680kcal/day+1176kcal/day= 2856 kcal/day x (10%)
TEF= 286 kcal/day
How do you calculate Total Energy use?
Add BMR+physical activity+TEF
The sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating.
Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT)
How do you calculate BMI?
weight (kg)/height (m)^2
OR
weight (lb) x 703.1 / Height (in)^2
What is a healthy weight-for-height BMI?
18.5-29.4
What is considered an overweight range of BMI?
25-29.9
Do shorter adults have higher or lower BMIs?
Higher
What BMI classifies underweight; normal; overweight and obese?
Underweight: below 18.5%
Normal: 18.5-24.9%
Overweight:25-29.9%
Obese: Over 30% EXTREME >40%
Why might a normal sized man have a BMI greater than 25?
He might have extra muscle tissue.
How much body fat is needed for males vs. females
Males: 5-10%
Females: 15-20%
What are some of the most effective ways of estimating body fat composition?
*underwater weighing
why: adipose tissue is less dense than lean tissue
*air displacement
Why:measures body VOLUME
*bioelectric impedance
Why:send electrical current through body
What risk factors are associated with upper body (android) obesity?
*cardiovascular disease
*hypertension
*type 2 diabetes
What risk factors encourage lower body (gynecoid) obesity?
estrogen and progesterone (female hormones) *this changes after menopause b/c blood estrogen falls.
Body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls
Set Point
A hormone that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure. What causes this?
Leptin.
A defection of ob gene can cause a lack of the leptin protein.
What are some causes of obesity?
*Genetics (leptin; ghrelin;pyy)
*Environment
Enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure.
Ghrelin
Stomach peptide
PYY
Define:
White body fat and Brown body fat
White: triglycerides storage
Brown: used for heat generation
What is a reasonable goal weight?
5-10% below initial weight.
What are some weight-loss strategies?
1.Eating plans (lower energy density)
2.Physical Activity
3.Behavior and attitude
How many kcals should a person who is on a diet consume if their BMI is >35? For people with BMI b/t 27-35?
BMI >35 = 500-1000 kcal/day
BMI 27-35=300-500 kcal/day
How do you calculate the basal metabolism for men vs. women?
Men:
weight(kg)x1kcal/kg/hrx24hr
Women:
weightx0.9kcal/kg/hrx24hr
**to convert weight, divide lb by 2.2 kg
What fraction of energy expenditure is represented by BMR?
60-70%
The increase in nonvoluntary physical activity triggered by cold conditions or overeating.
Thermogenesis
The increase in metabolism occuring during the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of energy-yielding nutrients. This reperesents 5-10% of energy consumed
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
Why is the TEF value for a protein-rich meal (20-30%) higher than for a Carb(5-10%) or fat(0-5%) rich meal?
Because it takes less energy to transfer absorbed fat into adipose stores or convert glucose to glycogen than to metabolize excess amino acids into fat.
measure of energy use while at rest
Resting Metabolic rate (RMR)
What factors LOWER the BMR?
Fasting
Malnutrition
*Hormones (gender)--can either speed up or slow BMR. (PMS raises)
How is estimated energy expenditure calculated for Physical activity?
Multiply the following by Basal Metabolism given/calculated:
Sedentary:20-40%
Light Activity:55-65%
Moderate Activity:70-75%
Heavy Activity:80-100% +
ex:Carlos w/moderate activity
1680kcal/day x(.70)= 1176kcal/day
How do you calculate TEF?
Add
(Basal Metabolism + physical activity) x (10%)
ex: Carlos=
1680kcal/day+1176kcal/day= 2856 kcal/day x (10%)
TEF= 286 kcal/day
How do you calculate Total Energy use?
Add BMR+physical activity+TEF
The sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating.
Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT)
How do you calculate BMI?
weight (kg)/height (m)^2
OR
weight (lb) x 703.1 / Height (in)^2
What is a healthy weight-for-height BMI?
18.5-29.4
What is considered an overweight range of BMI?
25-29.9
Do shorter adults have higher or lower BMIs?
Higher
Measures the amount of heat released
Direct Calorimetry
Measures the amount of oxygen consumed
Indirect Calorimetry
The number of kcal the body derives from a food, as contrasted with the number of kcals determined by calorimetry
Physiological fuel value
Causes CHO cravings, initiates eating, decreases energy expenditure & increases fat storage
Neuropeptide Y
What % of energy expenditure is Physical activity?
30-50%
What % of energy expenditure is Thermic effect of food?
10%
What % of energy expenditure is Basal metabolism?
50-65% (2/3)