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30 Cards in this Set

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Positivism
Assumes that the scientific method is the only way to get the truth
Empiricism
Assumption: Experience is real, that reality is real
Different people experience the same way, observation is objective, only experience is real. Based on experience only
Relativism
Everyone has the potential to see things differently and fill their blank slate
Derived Characteristics
Characteristics shared by a set of species that imply a common ancestor somewhere in the early past
Primitive Characteristics
Arose early in evolutionary history and not useful for figuring out low level of orders
Derived features of primates
collarbone
5 fingers
closely spaced orbitals allowing for 3d vision
shortened muzzle and snout
Unique fissure pattern of the cerebral cortex
Haplorhini vs Sephpsirhini
Higher level primates versus Lower level primates

monkeys, apes, tairais, loss of wet spot on the nose
Australopiths - Discovery
bipedal apes, 5 mya - 1.5 mya
Taung child discovered in 1934 by dart... A. Africanus. People didn't except because java man and because of piltdown man
Pelvis bone, 3 muscles
Olduvai Gorge
in SE africa, where there were tow volcanoes 1.8 mya and this caused a volcanic layers in which K/Ar can be used to date layers

established antiquity of australopits
Paranthropus Robustus
Like A. Africanus.
Chimp sized brain case, large rear teeth more derived than we are, cheek teeth were a lot larger
O. Tagenensis
Best available candidate for earliest hominin. Features might imply bipedalism...bycondular angle.
Australopith features
Small brain
large forward projecting faces, ape like noeses
huge cheek teeth,
long arms, curved finger bones...apelike ability to climb
A. Afarensis
3.9-3.8 mya
Lucy
Homo Habilis
Oldest known common reconized species of Homo
Two sizes, one could be rudolphensis could be a type of dimorphism

Stone tools- flaked stone artifacts appear abruptly flakes that only humans could have introduced... Oldowan tradition
Oldowan tradition
Persisted from 2.6 mya -1.7 mya
shape of tool depends on what started with

Mostly hunting and gathering. Mostly scavenging.
H. Ergaster
1.5 mya evolved, beginning of the acheulean tradition
Common african species
internal nose, no hair, dark skin, anatomically modern human from the neck down.

Truly human
Cranial capacity of 900 cc

When left Africa went to the east to from homo erectus, java version and the chinese version
Acheulean
St. acheul in N. France
East Africa from 1.7-1.6 mya
resumably evolved rom the Oldowan tradition
Dmansi 2700
H. Habilis fossils found in Georgia that are like Habilis not ergaster, might have to redifine what it is
H. Heidelbergensis
Entered Europe 600-500k
slowly evolved into neanderthals in Europe

Turned into Homo Sapiens in Africa
Sima de los Huesos
Shows that neanderthals were evolving in Europe 500kya
strange age, single artifact
Toralba & Ambrona
North, central spain among the earliest Acheulean sites in Europe

500kya, done through faunal dating.

Mostly proves that people were scavenging and gathering because can tell from the elephants
H. Antecessor
Gran Dolina

Mixture between heidelbergensis and neanderthal found in spain
Neanderthals
Discovered in 1856, first thought to be the skull of an oddly diseased human, 1886 two other skils found

Forward projection of face on the midline

bumps and crannies on on the mastoid region

brain case, large brain case
marks on animal bones, cannibalism, too use
globular skulls from rear
peculiar configuration of bony labryinth in the inner ear
-broad trunks and sort arms
heavily muscled and built bones
Neanderthals are not ancestral to cromagnons
Mousterian (lower paleolithic) middle stone age
Left no indication of religion. Probably competed with cromagnons
Popper's Worlds
World 1: physical objects
World 2: Subjective experience, consciousness of feelings, things thought processes
World 3: theoretical systems and ideas in and of themselves...mathematics, physics...
Meaning
Private and public, internalization and motivation

Logical Meaning - public, abstract a function of ideas, not words

Subjective Meaning - private mental/subjective
a function of worlds
Wernicke
phonology intact, grammar intact overlearned and overused phrases
FOX P2
gene related to language and use og grammar
Poverty of input
students don't hear every single word that they need to know for the language
Proof of the innateness of language
Universality of language
Grammar - quick, pidgin to creole, simon
D'andrade
ideas are necessary but not sufficient
Model A - Human goals are random, not good predictors of behaviors
Model B- Human motives and goals are commonly shared, cultural ideas that can be connected to these motives are good indicators of behavior. Model C. - cultural ideas are not predictive of behavior, because people are influenced by other things. Model D -

Culture is defined as ideas, strong ideas and institutions, the latter two affect culture more than the other two.