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69 Cards in this Set

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a small group of people with similar beliefs and rituals who break away from mainstream society
Conditions in Rome in the 1st century were ripe for the development of the "cult" religions:
-old religion had become a tool of the government and so no longer allayed the fears of the population
-conflict within Judaism left an opening for a charismatic new leader to emerge
Cult of Bacchus
-celebrate the Greek god, Dionysus
-celebrate the carnal pleasure, they abandoned self-restraint as being too materialistic
-idea was to commune and become one with the god, often through the drinking of wine, a practice of assimilation by early christians
-sign of Bacchus: vine and mask
Cult of Cybele
-Cybele (Hera), was considered by her followers to be the "Great Mother Goddess," charged with the fertilty of nature, protection of cities and the general welfare of the people
-Festival of Cybele celebrated the death and rebirth (ressurrection) of her husband, Attis, renewing fidelity and fertility
-cult emphasized fasting, self-flagellation (beat self up when you feel the need to sin), and animal sacrifice
Cult of Isis
-based on the story of Osiris and Isis. Osiris was killed and brought back to life (ressurrected) through the efforts of Isis
-members of this cult were promised immortality through belief
-there is an emphasis on purity, mortality, and salvation
Cult of Mithra
-stems from belief in the goddess of the sun (good vs bad). There were seven grades of initiation (Seven Sacraments-transend closer to God) including baptism and communion, often included severe tests of faith
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Christianity was rooted in recent historical events and not ancient mythology
-The original missionaries had actually known and interacted with Jesus
-It had a feeling of immediacy (it was of the here and now)
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Since Jesus was a commoner, the lower classes identified eaisly with him
-gives hope for salvation to people who lived in a world that was dominated by the rich and powerful
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Christianity offered eternal rewards as opposed to physical/material rewards on earth
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Early missionary work by Paul and others spread Christian ideas throughout the empire and established small Christian communities in major cities within the empire
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Poor social conditions and foreign threats created an atmosphere in which ideas about the afterlife were appealing
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Christian persecution strengthened and unified Christian enclaves throughout the empire
-martyr=appealing because of Jesus
-Law of unattended consequences
-Persecution drove Christians underground where they developed very tight-knit communities and developed their organization, theology and rituals
+comitted to idea who die for it=great for recurriting because cause must be worth it
+people who are oppressed=people become more comitted
+life after death made people not fear death
Why were the Christians persecuted?
They were seen by Romans as exclusive and intolerant of other religions
Why were the Christians persecuted?
Conversions often split families
Why were the Christians persecuted?
Strong, rigid values, and patterns of living were seen as threatening to Roman norms
-people loyal to God not emperor
Why were the Christians persecuted?
Christians were seen by the government as a seditious(treason) political group rather than a religious group
Why were the Christians persecuted?
Christians refused to sacrifice to the emperor or the Roman gods (they saw these as pagan worship)
Why were the Christians persecuted?
Accepted martyrdom
-people embraced death as a better life and most worthy sacrfice
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
The Apostolic Succession Doctrine provided a continuly in leadership by extending the powers given by Jesus to the newly ordained priests. This maintained a direct connection to the original disciples
-direct spiritual line from Jesus to St. Peter to current popes and priests
-pope never wrong about interpertations of scripture (infallable papacy)
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
The development of the Sacraments (Baptism, Communion, and Penanace) increased dependence on the Church for salvation
-more sacraments gives a person more grace
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
Local bishops were generally well-educated (often clasically) and communicated to coordinate beliefs, values, ritual, and (later) Church policy
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
The original language used was Greek, which broadened the appeal of Christianty to the academic community. Later the use of Latin helped beliefs throughout the empire.
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
The Edict (written order) of Milan in 313 CE
-Christianity was proclaimed (by Constantine) as legal to be practiced
Factors in the spread and popularity of Christianity
(392 AD/CE)The Pagan sacrificed of animals is outlawed (by Theodsius)
-395 Christianity declared the state religion of Rome
Originated as a form of Christian asceticism (philosophy of self-denile=no pleasure, frils=basic life)
+St. Antony-founder of Christian Monasticism
+St. Jerome
+St. Benedict-lived in a cave
Mortification of the flesh (lived with pain=make you stronger internally)
-Carthusians (monks used self-flaguation and scarred people)
Christian Monasticism has its roots in early attempts to imitate the suffering of Jesus-that is, to join the divine (Christian Asceticism)
Among the earliest Christian Ascetics was St. Antony, St. Jerome (331-420), noted for his extreme asceticism (imitated Jesus's suffering during his 40 days in the desert)
As the Western Empire began to fall, Aurelius Augustinus (354-430) developed a theology that would dominate Christianity for the next 800 years. Today, he is known as St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (a city in Northern Algeria)
-admired Socrates and Plato but felt that the search for truth was not based on reason alone
-prior to his conversion, he lived a rather wild and secular life, experimenting with different philosophies and religions
-after his conversion, wrote, "The Confessions" revealing his past life
-wrote "The City of God," a reaction to the growing belief that Rome fell to the Gothes in 410 because the Romans had abandoned the pagan gods in favor of Christianity
Why did God create Adam (and not whole bunch of people)
-to unify the human race by likeness of nature
-to unify humans in peace through a blood relationship
The Fall in the Garden (the sin of Adam and Eve)
-caused by pride (bad will) and guilty
-Pride: an appetite for inordinate (unmeasurable) exaltation (high praise) of self
-"Pride is the beginning of all sin" (Augustine)
-This sin was so evil that it impared human nature forever. Man is now condemed to the propencity for sin and necessity of death
-Paradigm shift: human beings nature is to sin and are born sinners
As a result, there are two ways of living hav resulted from two kinds of love
-the City of God
-the City of Man
The City of Man:
-Flowered from selfish love that dared to despise even God
The City of God:
-Flowers from a love of God
The City of Man:
-Seeks the praise of men (self-praise and self-pleasure), lusts for power and domination
The City of God:
-Relies on the Lord rather than on self
The City of Man:
-Visible, temporal and corrupt live according to man
The City of God:
-invisible, eternal, and perfect selfless love of God. World is of no concern
The City of Man:
-Goal: goods of their bodies, mind, or both
The City of God:
-Seek to hear the voice of God and the witness of conscience (know what is right and obey and follow)
The City of Man:
-Some may reach a knowledge of God, but no glorification or thanks
The City of God:
-Life of truth
The City of Man:
-Life of falsehood
The City of God Plan accepted:
-Comfort of black and white
-People don't want to think
Benedict of Nursia (480-543)
-Spent 3 years living in a cave without human contact, mortifying his flesh and eating only bread and water, deciding one can't properly serve God if not in good health
-Establish "The Rule" to emphasize:
+Obedience to God, the Rule and the abbot
+Confession (origin of the Sacrament or Penance)
+Self-improvement to be closer to God
+Recognize God's mercy, forbiveness and absolution
-The Rule served as the outline that organized Western Monasticism. After martyrdom, monasticism was considered the greatest expression of devotion (a dying to one's self and passions and a rebirth to God's service
+The Rule Stressed:
A Day in the Life of a 5th Century Benedictine Monk
-sleep (8 1/2 hours)
-labor (6 1/2 hours)
-reading and meditation (4 1/2 hours)
-offices (3 1/2 hours)
+Matins/Lauds (Dawn)
+Prime (Early AM)
+Terce (Late AM)
+Sext (Noon)
+Nones (Afternoon)
+Vespers (Dusk)
+Compline (Evening)
+Eating (1 Hour), 2 cooked meals and 1 pound of bread
Ascend through humility; Descend through pride
-By the 10th Century, a number of crises threatened the chruch and the established monastic order:
-decline of clerical education
-decline of clerical celibacy
-political domination of the church (Kings were appointing bishops and political control over the people)
-these crises resulted in a number of reforms led by Pope Gregory VII Concordat of Worms and William I of Aquitaine
In 910, William of Aquitaine and Berno, Abbot of Gigny begin widespread reform of the Benedictine order of monks:
-forged a strong relationship wiht the pope, enabling them to avoid domination by local kings
-created a strong centeralized organization that standardized practices, enforced "the Rule" and held local abbots accountable for their monasteries
-Revised "the Rule" (made it stricter)
Betweeen 1119 and 1124 Gregory VII composed the "Dictatus Papae" or "Rules of the Pope" which, among other moral reforms, placed the investments of bishops under the authority of the Church only. It was written as a result of the Concordat of Worms
Pope Gelasius II created the two swords Doctrine which was the seperation of the church and state
The success of the reforms at Cluny sparked the creation of over 300 new monastic movements
-Victorines, Canons Regular, and Preamonstratensions evolved from the Augustinian Order (Following "the Rule" of St. Augustine")-less strict
-Carthusians were strict and severe. They practiced enforced silence, complete suppression of sexuality and public self-flagellation (even after it was forbidden by Pope Clement VI=scarred people away from Chruch)
Cisterician Order (Bernardo Clairvaux)
-After the 12th Century, the Cluniac Order fell into decline and the Cistercian Order became dominant
+Founded by Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), the Order stressed the idea of Spirtiual Progression (finding a balance between the active and the contemplative life)
=Man for self (complete independence from God)
=Man loves God for personal reward (Fear of hell/non church goers)
=Man loves God for his own and for God's sake (associated with cloistered people who were concerned about personal salvation)
=Love of God with complete abandonment of self (complete identification of one's will with God's will)*Platonic: try to get there but don't get there
Dominicans Order (Dominic)
(black with white tunic)
In the early 1200s, Dominic founded a new order, the Dominications, in response to the Cistercian tendency to display its wealth and social standing. Its mission was to combat heresy through simple preaching and apostolic life.
Franciscan Order (Francis of Assisi)
Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan Order, stressing total renunction of all forms of worldly glory, wealth, aid, comfort and organizaton, living only according to the gospel. Poverty was the rule-give everything to the poor.
Art of Byzantine: San Vitale (526-547) Ravenna, Italy
The Church begun by the bishop of Ravenna (Ecclesius) after the death of King Theodoric in 526.
-Theodoric had made Ravenna the capital of Italy in 493. It provided easy communication with Constantinople and was eaisly defended because of giant swamp that surrounded it.
-It was named for St. Vitalis (a 2nd century marter who was killed on the site along with his children). He is seen as the spiritual head of the community in Revanna.
-In 540, Ravenna was liberated from Ostrogoths (eastern goths near Russia) by General Belisarius, and Ravenna became a critical city in Emperor Justinian's campaign to restore Roman authority to Italy.
Ravenna, Italy
San Vitale Floor Plan
-Shaped like an Ocatagon
-Catholic Church
-built thick walls=no big windows

apse: semicircular or polygonal, often vaulted recess, especially the termination of the sanctuary end of a church
-x on floor plan=groin vault
-gold=presence of God because they wouldn't show God
Art of Byzantine: San Vitale (526-547) Ravenna, Italy
-gold mosaic=divine
-mosaic is made up of glass piecies which the idea was borrowed by the Arabs and Persians
-Demphasized physical, emphasized spirtiual
-People floating
-Justinian looks like Jesus and has 12 followers
Justinian and his Attendants (San Vitale)
-He was born in 483 (the nephew of General Justin, who became Emperor in 518)
-In 512, Justinian was appointed Consul and Commander of the army
-He became Associate Emperor in 527 and sole Emperor 5 months later when Justin died
-He saw himself as the new Constantine and wished to restore the Roman Empire to the glory and territories it enjoyed under Theodosius
-He is best known for writing the Corpus Juris Civilis-a complete compendium of Roman Law
-He did recapture Italy and part of Spain from the Ostrogoths, Visogoths, and Bulgars
-He beleived that the unity of the Empire depended on unity of faith. To that end, he took control of the Academy of Plato (in Athens) and actively suppressed Paganism and all non-Christian faiths. He tried to end the schism between monophysite and orhodox Christianity
-Justian was the only one allowed in the hidden room
-Earthly mosaic because of vibrant colors and is more realistic than spiritually drawn
-Theodora ruled in partenship with her husband, Justinian from 527. She was born in either Crete or Syria. Her father was a bear trainer in Constaninpole. After her father's death, she began to work on stage as an actress; she was best noted for her nude entertainment and wild parties
-When she was 16, she converted to Christianity (while living in Alexandria). She gave up her former lifestyle.
-In 522, she moved to Constantinople and met Justinian who was twice her age (he 40, she 20)
-Justinian actually repealed an old Roman law that forbade Emperors from marrying commoners in order to marry her. Married in 525 both assumed thrown in 527.
-January 532 there was a revolt called "Nika" revolt between two competing schools of Christianity. Riot occured at the Hippodrome. Theodora shamed Justinian and his council from abandoning the palace.
-She passed laws that prohibited forced prostitution, granted women's rights in divorce cases and protected Monophysite Christians.
Empress Theodora and her attendants (San Vitale)
Located in alpse of San Vitale
Christ between the Angels and Saints
Ravenna, Italy
St. Apollinaire Floor Plan
-classic basilica style of Romans
-Romans had similar pediment style, arches
-apse end of St. Apollinaire. The campanile (tower)is a medieval addition.
-St. Apollinaire lived in the 2nd century and was martyred. Church was built on the site of his burial. He is considered a patron saint of the city of Ravenna.
Saint Apollinaire in Classe, Ravenna, Italy (dedicated 549 CE)
-Jesus is in the center with the four evangelists on the apse
-Cross represents Jesus is risen
-The guy under the cross is Saint Apollinaire
-Mosaic alter, marble arches,
Saint Apollinare
Istanbul, Turkey
Hagia Sophia Floor plan
-built by Justinian (name means "Holy Wisdom of the logos):Jesus at 2nd part of trinity
-Minaret-a call to prayer tower
-The Church was founded by Constantine the Great and made of timber on the site of an acient temple of Apollo. Church was burnt down by people in 404.
-Rebuilt by Theodosius II in 415. Burned down again during the Nika Revolt in 532
-Built in its current incarnation by Justinian (532-537). Probably took until 552 to complete totally
-Now a mosaque
Hagia Sophia (Istanbul, Turkey)532-537
Istanbul, Turkey
Interior of Hagia Sophia
Pendentives:allows you to put a dome on top of a square on traingular supports
Hagia Sophia: pendentives
This is one of the only surviving ones from the 6th Century
Mosaic of Christ: Hagia Sophia
-Built on site of earlier Trinity Cathedral
-1st name “The Cathedral of the Protection of the Mother of God”
-Completed in 1544, during the reign of Ivan Grosny (Ivan the Dread) to commemorate his victory over the Tartar Mongols and conquest of the city of Kazan
-Church was given the nickname “St. Basil’s after the “holy fool” Basil the Blessed (1468-1552), who was hugely popular at that time with the Muscovite Masses and with Ivan the Terrible
-legend has it Ivan had its architecture blined to prevent him from ever creating anything to rival its beauty
-the center tower is surrounded by 8 chapels, each with a differently patterned onion-shaped dome
-1588: 9th chapel was erected to house tomb of St. Basil
-Elevated gallery encircles the entire structure
-central tower is 64 meters high
St. Basil’s Cathedral (Red Square, Moscow, Russia)
Venice, Italy
St. Mark's Cathedral Interior
-Eastern Arabic influence
-completed in 1906 through decorative work continued until the beginning of the 19th century
-Dome made from timber frames and more onion-shaped, reflecting a more eastern style
-Mosaic date from 11th-13th centuries and cover an area of over 45,000 sq. feet
-5 domes cover the crossing and each of the arms, supported by the large piers linked by arches. This directs the light toward the center of the cathedral
-Gold mosaic: transport you to city of God
Saint Mark's Cathedral
(Venice, Italy)
Stiris, Greece
St. Lukes Floor Plan
-10th century Monastery
-Byzantine architecture: dome is curved, arch within an arch, lattice work
-Roman architecture: arches, stacked wedding cake look
-has lots of gold, ceiling is fresco, rest is mosaic
-Dome supported by 8 piers of pedentives
-Hosios Loukas (St. Luke's)
-Stiris, Greece
Artitechture Terms
Ribbed groin vault: