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72 Cards in this Set

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Golden Age
480-430 bce one of the most creative periods in the world - art, philosophy, architecture
Lyric Poetry
Greek Culture - poetry designed to give voice to deep emotions -
Muses
Greek-daughters of Zeus & Goddess of memory - they inspired the artists
Sapphos
Greek-female Homer-lived on island of Lesbos - wrote lyric poetry
Alexander the Great
Greek culture - King of Macedonia - most successful military commander of ancient history
Julius Caesar
Roman 46 bce - Roman dictator - restabilizes Rome - veni, vidi, vici attributed to him
Caesar Augustus
Roman - Octavian, Given Name Augustus (the Revered One) - Period of Pax Romana - he tried to civilize Rome
Res Publica
Roman - set up 287 bce – government of the people
Pax Romano
(30 bce -180 ce) -Era of peace & stability in Rome
Virgil
Roman - Rome’s greatest poet – author of the National Epic- Aeneid
Aeneid
Roman - 20 bce-Rome’s National Epic – written by Virgil - Iliad & Odyssey equivalent for Rome
Horace
Roman - very skillful social critic – He was a moralist – he wanted to change society - Carpe Diem – “Seize the day” – attributed to him
carpe diem
Roman - Poem written by Horace - Sieze the day - express the idea that one should enjoy life while one can.
Satire
Rome’s most original contribution to literature - Satire uses humor to denounce human vice & folly – human imperfections are mocked through comic exaggeration.
Juvenal
Rome’s most famous satirist – especially hostile toward women & foreigners. Famous for his 6th Satire – most bitter anti female diatribe. Most bitter attack on females in literature.
Jupiter
Roman (King of the Gods) - Zeus
Juno
Roman (Queen of the Gods) - Hera
Bacchus
Roman (God of Wine & vegetation) - Dionysus
Venus
Roman (Goddess of Love & Beauty) - Aphrodite
Analect
Chinese - Confucius - Commentaries on how to live the good life or right kind of life – addressing questions of moral conduct
Silk Road
Chinese - Silk, ivory, gems, spices. Traded with the west in a trading route called the Silk Road. Traded from Pacific to Asia Minor.
Mithraism
Roman -Its God Mithra slaughters a sacred bull & renders the earth fertile. Similarities to Christianity
Sadducees
Jewish - learned Jewish aristocrats who believed the Messiah would be a temporal leader who would give them political freedom. Did not believe in the immortality of the soul.
Pharisees
Jewish - more influential that the Sadducees & saw Messiah as a spiritual redeemer and viewed the soul as eternal and also believed in eternal punishment (Hell)
Essenes
Jewish monastic community practiced asceticism – more reclusive- more radical. Believed in eternal life.
Asceticism
Jewish Essenes - Strict self denial & self discipline
Dead Sea Scrolls
Cbristian - Copies of Old Testament found near the Dead Sea
Gospels
Christian our most important source of information we have about the life of Jesus. Earliest of them were written 40 years after Jesus’ death
Sermon on the Mount
Jewish - One of the most representative of Jesus' sermons
Paul (Saul) of Tarsus
Christian - regarded as the cofounder of Christianity – Apostle to Gentiles. Credited with having written 10-14 of the 27 NT Testaments. Identified Jesus as Cristos (Christ) – Explained Jesus death as a living sacrifice to atone for original sin
Edict of Milan
Roman - Constantine declared religious tolerance throughout the Empire
Buddha Siddhartha Gautama
(566 bce) Buddhist - The original Buddha
Bodhisattva
Buddhist - concept developed by the Mahayana sect – Compassionate beings before & after Buddha postponed Nirvana to aid and guide people (Compared to Christian Saints)
Hinayana
Buddhist - focused on personal pursuit of Nirvana – closer to Buddhism’s original teaching
Mahayana
Buddhism - elevated Buddha to divine status and added many new teachings & legends
Pitakas
Buddhist -Teachings of Buddha - written in 3 main books - Baskets of the Law
Sutras
Buddhist - Instructional chapters in the Patikas
Zen
Chinese - sect that developed in China – influenced by Daoism – emphasized meditation & visionary insight and the awakened mind.
Petrine Doctrine
Roman - doctrine advanced by Leo the great in the 5th century – The bishop of Rome gained preeminence as the temporal representative of Christ on earth
Nicene Creed
Statements of the Christian Faith - First worldwide Ecuminical Council
Benedict
Established the first Western Monastic community in Southern Italy – Founder of the Benedictine Rule – sound mind – sound body
Scholastica
Sister of Benedictine – started a monastery for women - most people believed that women were the daughters of Eve
Iconography
Iconography - study of the symbolic importance of signs or emblems – Evangelist as 4 winged creatures –
Catacombs
Romans - provided us with the earliest evidence of Christian art – Subterranean burial chambers outside of Rome – Usually for the important people – Richly decorated with frescoes
Orans
Christian - position – arms upraised in prayer
Jerome
Translated the Vulgate – basically translated the Old & New Testament into Latin
Ambrose
Roman - Bishop of Milan – responsible for writing many of the early Christian Hymns
Gregory
Roman Aristocrat who became Pope – Established the structure for ruling the church – responsible for converting England to Christianity
Augustine
Christian - greatest philosopher of Christian Antiquity- Wrote Confessions & City of God – Advocated dualistic Model
Dualistic Model
sets up a separation – unclean body vs purified soul – separated mind & body – Viewed the Hebrew Bible as a symbolic guide to Christian belief – taking events from the OT as symbolic of the NT – ie comparing the Ark as symbolic of the physical body of Christ
Gregorian Chant
derived from the ancient Jewish rituals of chanting prayers & psalms. Designed to celebrate the sacrifice of Christ body in blood – monophonic & acopella
Stupas
Buddhist - beehive shaped burial mounds of brick & stone – 8 originally constructed to hold cremated ashes of Buddha
Mandala
Budhhist - Designs of the universe – used as a visual aid to meditation – circular
Pagoda
Chinese - Buddhist - multi tiered tower -transformed the stupa into a work of architecture in China
Muhammad
Islam - (570-632) – little formal education – went into dessert – confronted by Gabriel – told him to proclaim himself Allah (age 41) – Mecca: Birthplace of Muhammad – Medina: Muhammad immigrated there
Ramadan
Islam - is the ninth month of the Islamic year –for prayer & fasting
Hajj
Islam - a pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad
Islam - Holy war of fervent religious struggle
Sunni
Islam - Orthodox version of faith – 90% of Muslims are Sunni Leadership chosen by the people
Shiite
Islam - Only Muhammad’s direct descendents can rule. Claims descent through Muhammad cousin Ali – Most live in Iraq & Iran
Caliphs
Islam - Successors to Muhammad
Sufism
Islam - followers of Muhammad who chose a meditative world renouncing lifestyle. Committed to purification of the soul. Mystical union with God through meditation & prayer
Rumi
Islam - Great Sufi minister & Poet
The Thousand and one Nights
Islam - Collection of Prose tales -assembled over 200 years – Brought together tales from India, Arabia, Persia
Scheherazade
Islam - is the fictional storyteller of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights.
Arabesque
Islam - kind of ornament that draws from plant & flower forms – motifs are repeated
4 Noble truths
Buddhist - there is suffering, there is cause to suffer, there is an end to suffering, there is a path out of suffering
Han Dynasty
Chinese - (206 bce-220 ce) -Classical Age for China-developed Silk Road, tripled size of China, restored honor to Confucius
Confucius
Chinese - (551-479 bce) Works are in Analects, Chinas most notable thinker, self educated teacher - how to live the good/right life
Qin Dynasty
Chinese - (221-206 bce) Emporer chin - oppressive time - lots of standardizations, promoted silk industry
Quran
Islam - “recitation” Holy book of Islam, Teachings of Muhammad,114 chapters,Guidelines for worship/moral instruction
Hellenistic
Greek - art/architecture was Larger,more theatrical, had broader range of subject, portrayed in real life ways