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47 Cards in this Set

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History and Government:
-Roman Republic
-Beginning with the expulsion of the Etruscans in 509 BC:
=set up a republican form of government (that primarly representd the upper, or Patrician, class)
=Began to expand the Punic Wars (against Hannibal and Carthage)
History and Government:
-Offices of Republic
-Consuls: Executive branch, 2 presidents=couldn't be more powerful or dictatorship, veto ("I disagree"), In times of war there was one consul to get things done
-Senate: Legislative branch, 300-600 Senators for life, made laws, chosen by Senate, not elected (House of Lords)
-Praetors: judical branch (judges)
-Censors: keep track of people, mostly Patrician to see who would be good use in war, policts, and other services
=In 471 BC, a new group called the Assembly of Tribes was formed to represent the Plebian class (lower class), allowed to veto laws, but not create laws (House of Common)
-In 451 BC Roman Law was codified and written down as the Twelve Tables (code of Justine-English Bill of Rights-Magna Carta-U.S. Constitution)
+"People are innocent until proven guilty"-not written in U.S. law
+Courts must rely on past desicions when rendering judgment (legal precedent)-Stare Decisis -important to Constition law
+"You can't be guilty of thinking, but for your actions"-freedom of speech
+Judges should take into account age and experience-system for juvieneles and probabations, and steped punishment
+Law applies equally to everyon-5th admendment (everyone equal)
Roman Territory at the end of the Republic (50 BC)....
all around the Meditteran Sea
Domestic unrest and foreign invasions allowed military leaders to gain control of the government:
-1st Trimuvirate: Julius Caesar defeats Crassus (killed in battle) and Pompey (assisignated) and declares himself "Dictator for Life"
=I have crossed the Rubican-Caesar went with army across this place, against Pompey's orders(past the point of no return)
-2nd Triumvirate: Octavian (grandnephew of Caesar)defeats Antony (Cleo and Caesar had child) and Lepidus and is declared "Augustus" (meaning emperor)
-Republic ends, Rome becomes an empire (ruled by a lawful government-Aristotle), Senate becomes a tool of the Emperor
The Roman Empire:
-Roman Empire at its greatest in 116 AD
-Pax Romana
-Dynasties of the Pax Romana
=Meaning the "Roman Peace," it lasted from 27 BC to about 180 AD
+Julio-Claudian Dynasty: Tiberius(lived during time of Jesus), Caligula (killed by own people b/c he was crazy), Claudius (Peaceful time, kind ruler, but wife had child with another man and when he defied to give the crown to her son, Nero, she poisned him), Nero (brat, wuss, was blamed for the Great Fire of Rome, in which he blamed it on the Chritians)
+Flavian Dynasty: Vespacian (Started Colummseum), Titus (Sacked Jeresulm, caused Jewish dispora), Domitian (crazy)
+Five Good Emperors: Nerva (Smart and adoptoded Trajan), Trajan (ruled during the Point in which the Roman Empire was largest, adopted Hadrian), Hadrian (known for Hadrian wall, panthanon, first emperor to have a beard, adopted Antonius), Antonius (Chose and groomed Marcus Aurelius), Marcus Aurelius (wise, stoic, but ruled during a time of plauges)
The New Empire:
-Diocletian: attempts to restore order and stability with the development of the Tetrachy, splitting power among four administrations
-Constantine: moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium (Constantinople/Istanbul) and legalized the practice of Christianity
-Theodocius: makes Christianity the state religion of Rome
-Romulus Augustus: becomes the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire who he is ousted by a Coup d' etat in 475. Although, the Western Empire fell, the Eastern Empire (Byzantine Empire) survived until 1453.
-Arch:uses simple gravity to create compression forces that hold the structure together
-pier: vertical element that transfers the weight into the ground
-abutment: contains the horizontal forces
-haunch: weakest part of of the arch and contained by the spandrel
-keystone: stone that starts the compressions in middle of the arch
-voussoir: other stones near keystone
-spandrel: the space between a curved figure and a rectangular boundary
Roman Arch and Architecture
-stones layed on stone (nothing else)
-30 miles long aqueduct
-150 feet high
-hasn't colloposed because of arches use compression forces
-aqueduct: transport water
-viaduct: transport people and things
Pont du gard Aqueduct (20-10 BCE, Nimes, France)
-Vespacian started Coliseum
-columns (Doric-Ionic-Corinthian)
-seats 50,000 people (gate and seat number)
-poor people sat high up
Coliseum (Flavian Ampitheatheater, Rome 72-82 CE)
The arch
the most versatile of building techniques. Once the basic principale is understood, the varieties of arch shapes and applications is endless
Placing 2 barrel vaults perpindicular to each other, allows for large open areas to be covered by stone ceilings
groin vault
-style of christian churches based on this structure
-aisle part had barrel vaults
-navel part is groin vault
The Basilica of Constantine: 306-312 CE
-Romans took Greek Motifs and made them their own
-looks Ionic (capitals and shaft), but no triparte, has dentil molding
Temple of Fortuna Virilis (Rome, c. 100 BCE)
-Corinthian columns, rotunda and cupola, colomnade (porch held by columns)
Temple of the Sibyl (Tivoli, first century BCE)
Egyptians
-Corbel and Post and Lintel
Post and Lintel
Greeks
Arch
-Barrel and groin vaults
-Rotunda and cupola (higher-more space)
Romans
-This arch was built to commemorate the saking of Jerusalem by the Romans, led by Titus and marking the beginning of the Jewish dispora
Arch of Titus (Rome, 81 CE)
sculpture of Jewish dispora
Inside the Arch of Titus
coffering
indented or carved oranements of an arch or ceiling
-"All the gods"
-columnade, concreate cupula, rotonda
-had coffering inside in bronze
-oculus vespasian in cupula with compression ring
The Pantheon (Rome, 118-125 CE)
-tomb inside of mountain
Al-Khazneh (Petra, Jordan 2nd century CE)
a series of arches lined up side by side. It allows for much wider aisles and naves than was possible using the post and lintel techniques
The Barrel Vault
-also known as an oblesquke
-spiral column in bas relief shows Trojan history
-Bishop Burnwar built a similar column with the story of Jesus
-Romans glorify history, accomplishments, and leaders
Column of Trajan (Rome, 113 CE)
-center of Rome
-buildings of economies, government, ect.
The Forumn
1st Trimuvirate: Julius Caesar defeats Crassus (killed in battle) and Pompey (assisignated) and declares himself "Dictator for Life"
=I have crossed the Rubican-Caesar went with army across this place, against Pompey's orders(past the point of no return)
Julius Caesar
Pompey (assisignated)
=I have crossed the Rubican-Caesar went with army across this place, against Pompey's orders(past the point of no return)
Pompey
2nd Triumvirate: Octavian (grandnephew of Caesar)defeats Antony (Cleo and Caesar had child) and Lepidus and is declared "Augustus" (meaning emperor)
-Republic ends, Rome becomes an empire (ruled by a lawful government-Aristotle), Senate becomes a tool of the Emperor
Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
Tiberius
lived during time of Jesus
Caligula (Julio-Caudian Dynasty)
killed by own people because he was crazy
Claudius (Julio-Caudian Dynasty)
Peaceful time, kind ruler, but wife had child with another man and when he defied to give the crown to her son, Nero, she poisned him
Nero (Julio-Caudian Dynasty)
brat, wuss, was blamed for the Great Fire of Rome, in which he blamed it on the Chritians
Started Colummseum
Vespasian (Flavian Emperors)
known for Hadrian wall, panthanon, first emperor to have a beard, adopted Antonius
Hadrian (Five Good Emperors)
ruled during the Point in which the Roman Empire was largest, adopted Hadrian
Trajan (Five Good Emperors)
wise, stoic, but ruled during a time of plauges
Marcus Aurelius (Five Good Emperors)
attempts to restore order and stability with the development of the Tetrachy, splitting power among four administrations
Diocletian (New Empire)
moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium (Constantinople/Istanbul) and legalized the practice of Christianity
Constantine (New Empire)
makes Christianity the state religion of Rome
Theodocius (New Empire)
Pompell
-stage there is acoustic
-seats built into mountain
-sludge down middle of street
-sexuality not sinful until Christianity
-ash preserved bodies (natural cast) from Mt. Vasuvius
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
Internal Factors:
-The size of the empire
+Too large to govern effectively
+the weakened army was unable to maintain internal order and effictively defend the borders
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
Financial Problems:
-High taxes (high demand for services, wars)
-High inflation (value of money down b/c people making too much)
-Huge underclass (poor people)
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
Cultural Issues:
-competing religions (Christianity and other cults)-seperation
-many different cultures and ethnicities were brought into the empire (no Roman identity)
-forced labor (need to feed people)
-confiscation of property
-wealthy abandoning cities (become slums)
-all factors led to social tension and unrest
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
Government Corruption
-assisignations
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
Population Decrease
-plagues and disease widespread
-casualties of constant warring
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
Overuse and misuse of land
-Slavery inhibited the development of new agricultural and production techniques
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
-Reasons for the End of the Empire
External Factors:
-increasing barbarian (foriegners) invasions
-Roman empire collapsed under the pressure of its own weight in 476 CE
-Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) collapsed in 1453