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46 Cards in this Set

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Middle Ages begin with collapse of Western Empire in 476 CE:
-term "Middle Ages" refers to period between ancient world (Greek and Romans) and modern world (beginning with Renaissance)
What happened in Western Empire after fall of Western Empire?
-Roman control authority collapsed
-Romas and Germanic tribes (Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals and Frank) begin process of accultruation with local populations beginning to divde along tribal lines:
+Peaceful acculturation through prolonged contact
+Military raids (forced acculturation)
+Defense from invaders (forced acculturation)
Roman postal and communication serves broke down and Roman infrastructure fell into ruin
-Newly acculturated areas became isolated
-Only Church maintained authority outside local power structure, due to influence of Augustine's ideas (increasing depending on Church):
=trade decreased
=scholarship declined (much of ancient scholarship and literature way lost)
-local languages replaced Latin
adherence to religious opinion contray to chruch dogma (system of beliefs) or devising of one's own religion
dissenter from established chruch dogma, especially Roman Catholic Church
Christian Heresies generally had several characeteristics:
-all oppose elaborate structure of Church
-all chose between real, solid, bureaucratic and political church of their time and "simple" church
+Heresy doesn't necessarily lead to a Schism
church that breaks away enbloc from mother church (like Eastern Orthodox Church)
4 types of Christian Heresy:
-Puritanical Heresy
+Opposed growing secular power, wealth, and bueauracray of Church including use of idols
+Denounced polytheism, local cults and pagan habits
-Lived apart from society and like disciples of Jesus
Waldensains (Poor Men of Lyon, founded by Peter Waldy, a wealthy cloth merchant)
-Puritanical Heresy
-Everyone is priest and can interpret Bible (even women)
-Need for apostolic poverty
-Translated Bible into vulgate (common language)
-Attacked sacraments, mass, and clergy
-Retired to Bohemia and Alps, were periodically massacered
Catharism (Albigensians)
-Puritanical Heresy
-Militant group
-Believed all can participate in religous services
-Clergy called "Perfect": learned men who practiced strict asceticism, remain celibate, were vegetarians (ate just to stay alive)
-Believed clergy have no wealth
-Believed in reincarnation (ordinary people who didn't live up to ideals of "Perfect" would die and come back to try again)
-Condemned marriage as sin of the flesh (easy morals)
-First to be punished by death
-Those who couldn't remain steadfast, were encouraged to commit suicide
Mystical Heresy
belief that direct knowledge of God, spiritual truth or ultimate reality can be attained through subjective experience (insight, intution).
+one doesn't necessarily need Bible or Church
+Contemplation can lead to personal inspiration and knowledge of God
-Housed at Trinity College Library in Dublin
Location of Books of Kells
Millenarianism (Messiansim)
believed that messiah would return in their time and physical world would end. They looked forward to last judgment.
Rationalistic Heresy:
reliance on reason for establishment of religious truth. Used techniques of Greek rationalistic to gain knowledge of God.
+Middle Ages, inquistions (set up by Church to identify and "cure" heretics") torture, forced confession and ultimately execution
Medieval thought and Scholarship:
-1085, in Toleto, Spain, victorious Christians discovered works of Arab scholars and Greek rationalists, which reintroduced world to rationalism and imperalism
-Matthew~human angel
Symbols of Four Evangelists:
Adelard of Bath (1080-1145)
-wrote Natural Questions, socratic type dialouge between Adelard and his nephew, addressing 76 questions of science and natural history
-travel extenesively among Islamic scholars and translated many works of Islamic science into Latin
-believed everything exists from God and because of God, but that natural can't exist without rational thinking
Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
-Wrote Sic et Non, listing some 150 questions on which Church authorities had taken differing positions over the centeuries. Suggested that issues could be resolved by careful application of dialectical method to language of text
-Although never intended to challenge Christians faith, he raised, with his critical and rational scrutiny, fears that his approach would undermine faith and foster heresy
-Highly influentical among medieval scholars throughout Europe
John of Salisbury (1115-1180)
-wrote Metalogicon, defense of Liberal Arts curriculum, which was under attack by conservative theologians
-7 liberal Arts formed core of medieval education. They were divided into 2 programs
+Trivium (Latin Grammer, rhetoric, and dialetic/logic)
+Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry, and Music)
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
-wrote summa Thologica. Born in Kingdom of Naples (Southern Italy)
-defied family's wish that he assume leadership of Benedictine Abbey by becoming a Dominican monk at age 17
-Dominicans saw his academic promise and sent him to study at Dominican School in COlogne and later University of Paris
-Studied under Albertus Magnus, philospher of Aristotelian method to reconcile reason and faith
-never completed Summa Theologica, giving up following a mystical experience while celebrating mass
-made a saint
-books were recognized as basis of Catholic theology
Summa Theologica
-Aquinas set out to use Aristotelian methods to prove existence of God
+uses syllogism to explain rational thinking
+Church caved in and permitted all Aristolian work into accepted curriculum
+philosophy was dubbed "Thomism" and studied by Dominicans
=Nothing moves unless it is moved (pontetiality becames actuality only from action of something in state of actualilty)
=Something must exist that has always had actuality (a 1st mover)
=that 1st mover is God (unmoved Mover)
+Cause and Effect
=Nothing can cause itself because that would mean it existed before it existed
=There must be first cause because without it there would be no effect (no existence)
=first cause is God
+Possiblity and Necessity
=Possible for everything to be or not to be; therefore at one time everything didn't exist
=Things exist because they are necessary, but existence only comes from something already existing
=There must be something that has always existed and created everything else (Known as Necessary being-depends on nothing else for existence)
=Nessascary being is God
+Gradations (forms=God)
=All things are ordered according to standard or set of gradations
=there must be standard against which all other things are measured (maxium degree to which we compare things-standard of perfection)
=standard of perfection is God
+Movement toward an end (teleology)
=All things (that lack knowledge move toward some end-we know this because natural bodies act in the same way again and again
=Since not all things know things end (such as natural bodies) and movement toward an end requires this knowledge and direction, there must be a source of knowledge of all ends and mover toward those ends according to a design
=designer is God (existence comes to an end)
-considered transitional building, an early move toward more gothic style
-Gothic=elongated towers, vertical element=thinner, elegant when broken up to make it lighter, arches a bit pointed
-rich carving is likened to Byzantine ivory casket
+Byzantine=flat figures, indentions
Notre Dame la Grande (Poitiers, France)
Beliefs of Aquinas
-Man has free will because of reason given by God
-Faith comes first than reason, and base our reason from our faith
-Reason shouldn't be feared
-Reason is subordinate to faith (insufficent for leading us to salvation) he is considered a medieval thinker
Both Augustine and Aquinas believed:
-God is the source of all truth
-Human nature is corrupted by imprint of original sin (Adam and Eve)
-God revealed Himself through the Bible and in Jesus
-Faith in God is most important
=Aug.-rejects reason
=Aqu.-uses faith and reason
-Ultimate true knowledge of God is unattainable
=Agu.-Plato (can never know)
=Aqu.-Aristotle (exeperience and reason)
-Free will exist
=Aug.-Fall of Adam and Eve (chose way of life)
=Aqu.-God gives free will by reason
-Containing four books of gospel, written in Latin and illuminated on vellum by Irish monks
Book of Kells
Notre Dame la Grande
Rich carving is likened to Byzantine ivory casket
-gothic=huge window, thinner tower and higher, butress for windows, vertical emphasis=closer to God
-Cathedral=seat of a bishop
-Chapel=small worshipping place
-Fan vaulting, hand carved stone, organ screen
-tracery=wood or stone within and around windows
-Choir area made out of wood
King's College Chapel, Cambridge University, England
-Pantaleon means "all compassionate"
-Consecrated and is one of the oldest churches in Cologne, Germany
-Church named for St. Pantaleon, who is credited with miraculous healing power. He was martyered. Many stories about how Christ miraculously saved him from death (but are doubted, even by the Church)
-Roman/Greek=arches, stacked look
Benedictine Church of St. Pantaleon (Cologne, Germany)
byzantine encrusted walls and mosaic apse
Interior of Pisa Cathedral
-Rebuilt after fire destroyed original structure
-an "impregnable fortress of God"
-Roman: basiclia, arches, squarish, stacked look, small windows b/c of thick walls
-St. Philibert presents one of the earliest examples of a radiatiny ambulartory (Ambulatory=aisle running around apse)
-Piers thick and heavy=romanesque building
Abbey Church of St. Philibert (Tournus, France)
-founded by bishop Bernward and completed by successor, Godehard. It was a lutheran Church during reformation and was restored after heavy damage during WWII
Abbey Church of St. Michael (Hildesheism, Germany)
-Campiline (bell tower)-leaning tower
-interior of Pisa Cathedral:consisting of ancient Roman granite columns (brought from Isle of Elba), has 3 levels, Byzantine encrusted walls and mosaic apse
Cathedral Group of Pisa, Italy
-height 12 ft.
-describes life of Christ
-inspired by Torjan Column
Abbery Church of St. Michael
-Bishop Bernward's Column
King's college Chapel
-fan vaulting
-choir area made out of wood
-built but was refined
-fascade inspired other Florentine works by Alberti
-Roman=arches, pediment, little windows
-Byzantine=mosaic, pink, green, white, marble, geometric, colorful
-celiing is triangular truce
San Miniato al Monte (Forence, Italy)
trangular truce roof
San Miniato al Monte
-not as gothic: arcade wide, triform
-has tracery
-Cruciform: cross shaped
Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
floor plan and inside view
Basilica of St. Denis (Abbey Church of St. Denis)
-Considered first gothic cathedral
-Gothic:flying butress, sharp points, columns, arcade, triforum, clavestory
Chartres Cathedral (France)
-2 different towers, rose window, stone tracey, cruciformed
-Tympanum: space beneath an arch above doorway often filled with sculptural relief
=move from secular world to spiritual world
-Flying buttress: external arch transmitting thrust to bustress and used to brace upper walls of cathedral to help carry weight of roof or vault (also allows larger windows-hence more light)
-Labrynth on floor of crossing
Notre Dame de Paris
-Symmetrical, deep portals, Gargolyges
Notre Dame de Paris
-burned down and rebuilt
-tallest complete cathedral in France
-Rose window is lacey and is more tracery than glass; deep doorway; towers not as symetrical
Amiens Cathedral
-"Jewel Box"=floor to celing stain glass windows
-ribbed groin vaulting
Saint Chapelle (Paris, France)
-bell tower; white, green, pink marble; fresco dome and dome within a dome; apse has little windows
-Roman: horizontal, classic basilica style
-Dome model form dorm of St. Peter's in Rome
-Bapistery in foreground has bronze doors
Santa Maria Del Fiore (The Duomo) Florence, Italy
-Poet's Corner
Westminster Abbey (London, England)