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89 Cards in this Set

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Thomas Jefferson
Reason gives world freedom.
Enlightenment
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Reason gives world peace.
Enlightenment
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Reason gives world social harmony.
Enlightenment
Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Reason gives world moderate government reform.
Enlightenment
John Locke (1632-1704)
"Reasonableness of Christianity"
Enlightenment
Reason
Protestants and Catholics have this in common.
Enlightenment
Philosophical/Religious view of soul.
Everything has a soul, that is what makes it what it is.
Enlightenment
Scientific view of soul.
Physical nature consists of matter.
Enlightenment
Western Epistemic of understanding before the enlightenment
Faith & Reason
Enlightenment
Western Epistemic of understanding during the enlightenment
Reason over faith because faith causes war.
Enlightenment
Reason for reason over faith
Religion too emotionally charged. Leaders twist faith to rule. Rape of women. Destruction of crops.
Enlightenment
Scientific Revolution
17th and early 18th Century
Physical nature is the only proper object of inquiry.
"Impersonal reason". Laws should be explained mathematically. Nature can be mastered through observation. Once mastered, can serve human desires.
Enlightenment
Issac Newton
Reduction of physical nature to math.
Enlightenment
Connection between scientific revolution and Enlightenment
claim that scientific methodology and inductive reasoning could explain everything, including human interaction.
Enlightenment
Adam Smith
Economic relationships may seem disordered, but they're not.
Enlightenment
Science
Discovers order and chaos. Attempts to show all hidden mysteries of the world. Ability to explain everything and solve problems.
Enlightenment
Result of cosmos scientific finding
all other methods of deriving truth are irrelevant and irrational; including magic, occult, mysticism, and religion.
Enlightenment
First Implication of Enlightenment
Two primary targets -women and Catholics. Women are overly emotional, Catholics have vicious clergy who bend minds of young.
Enlightenment
Second Implication of Enlightenment
Everything is determined by material properties.
Enlightenment
Third Implication of Enlightenment
The mind is determined by its material properties.
Enlightenment
Tabula Rasa
"clean slate" priviledges education, especially for the young because you can make a person be what you want by controlling the information they receive.
Enlightenment
Enlightenment education
Education should take place within a framework of personal freedom.
Enlightenment
Object of rational individual
examine critically facts of existence and determine laws embedded there-in, so that the human condition, the world itself, could be transformed. adjust on the basis of good science, so the world will become closer to ideal.
Enlightenment
Voltaire (1694-1778)
French. Religious toleration, freedom of press, freedom from discourse of religious authorities.
Enlightenment
John Locke (1632-1704)
Constitutionalism will protect individual rights.
Enlightenment
Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Checks and balances to protect from institutionalized corruption
Enlightenment
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
French radical, gov't needs to be responsible to general will, listen to people.
Enlightenment
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Free markets
Enlightenment
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
Women should share the rights of men, including education and political freedom
Enlightenment
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Prussian pedagog, analyzed the golden rule, contributed to moral law
Enlightenment
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
Italian, stop extreme punishment of criminals
Enlightenment
First Problem with Enlightenment
The alteration of nature could be used corruptly.
Enlightenment
Second Problem with Enlightenment
Reshaping of reality to suit ones' desires is destructive to human rights.
Enlightenment
Enlightenment Anthropology
- Mixed signals of human conditions
Person: Subject or object
Enlightenment
Person: Object
Can be used. Race and gender only characteristics.
Enlightenment
Person: Subject
Person resists descriptors for usage.
Enlightenment
Olaudah Equiano
(c.1745-1797)
Captured by black raiders for English slave trade, purchased in Virginia by Naval Officer, who provided education. Served in Seven Years' War. Baptised as Christian. Instead of obtaining freedom, he was sent to Caribbean. Sold to Robert King, quaker merchant in Philadelphia who dealt in sugar and Rum. First mate on King's ship. Traded on side and bought his own freedom at age of 21.
Atlantic World
"Interesting Narative"
Book by Olaudah Equiano inspiring the abolition of slavery.
Atlantic World
50,000
Number of West Africans brought through Atlantic Slave trade in 1756.
Atlantic World
Atlantic Slave Trade
Most extensive and significant portion of African slave trade. Well organized and efficient by 1750's.
Atlantic World
11.7 million
Africans transported across Atlantic between 1450 and 1900.
Atlantic World
slave crops
worked on sugar, rice, coffee, tobacco, cotton (19th century)
Atlantic World
Decentralized states in Europe that took part in early Industrialization.
England, 17 providences in Netherlands including Dutch Republic
Atlantic World
1648
Following 30 years war, Netherlands received their independence from Spain and set up Dutch East India Trading Company (Dutch merchants traveling abroad), controlled by gov't to exploit Atlantic trade.
Atlantic World
Mercantilism
A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state. Aimed specifically at creating a favorable balance of foreign trade in order to increase a country's stock of gold (and silver - saved for times of war).
Atlantic World
7 aspects of Mercantilism
1.export value high 2. encourage your exports. 3. invest 4. Import laborers 5. Improve transportation 6. Impose tariffs 7. Need colonies
Atlantic World
Dutch trade 1660's
257 ships/fleet employed 12,000 around the world.
Europeans became dependent on Dutch silk, pearls, flavoring spices (from Indonesia)
Atlantic World
Event in American history related to Dutch control of East Indies
WWII, Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor to destroy American Fleet
Atlantic World
Two products that permanently transformed sociability and spread of democratic values
Tobacco, coffee
Atlantic World
smoking in the 17th century
Early 17th century - New Fashion, Dutch import smoking from New World.

Late 17th Century - smoking referred to as drinking smoke
Atlantic World
History of Tobacco
In New World before English arrived.
Pipes smoked by Mayans and Aztecs.
Incas used tobacco as medicine.
Brazil used powdered form of Tobacco called Snuff (became big in France)
Atlantic World
1st standard of mercantilism
exported goods have to have a better value than imported goods
Atlantic World
2nd aspect of mercantilism
encourage your exports
(create trade monopolies)
Atlantic World
3rd aspect of mercantilism
invest in promising export industries
(subsidize shipping concerns with government money)
Atlantic World
4th standard of mercantilism
Import laborers
(ex: "The Mission")
Atlantic World
5th aspect of mercantilism
Improve internal system of transportation
(build canals for lower countries in Netherlands)
Atlantic World
6th aspect of mercantilism
Impose heavy burden of tariffs on goods coming in that might compete with domestic products
Atlantic World
7th aspect of mercantilism
Vital domestic labor supply producing goods, need colonies as markets for domestic goods
-place to dump extras
Atlantic World
Dutch relation to tobacco in 17th century.
Controlled curing process
Atlantic World
Netherlands and Poland occupants
Descendants of Jews kicked out by Spanish in 15th century.
Atlantic World
spread of tobacco
geographically - Western to Eastern Europe
Socially -Upper class downward, men to women
Atlantic World
women and tobacco
Women usually did snuff. Woman caught smoking pipe was target for cartoonists. Russian invented cigarettes for women- smoked as sign of emancipation.
Atlantic World
women and coffee
women enthusiasts of coffee. 1732, Bach, "Women in love with coffee"
Atlantic World
history of coffee
during Renaissance, Europeans going through middle east saw Turkish drinking Kavah. Expensive because Arabs controlled its trade, but a few tried it.
Dutch East India trading transported coffee plants to Java. Slaves took care of crops, coffee spread.
Atlantic World
promotion of sociability and democratic values by coffee
coffee shops free spaces for socializing.
cops were not there so people talked politics on social changes and justice.
Atlantic World
1652
first coffee shop opened in London
Atlantic World
globalization
helped popularize coffee, tobacco, chocolate, tea.
Atlantic World
Triangular Trade
Trade through Atlantic Ocean between Africa, Europe and the Americas.
Required massive supply of cheap labor. Some labor in jungle - hot, wet, promotes disease.
Couldn't use Indian population of New World because they were small in stature and decimated by disease. New Source of labor from Africa.
Atlantic World
Trade products from Africa to South America
Slaves
Atlantic World
Trade products from Africa to Europe
Gold
Atlantic World
Trade products from Europe to Americas and Africa
manufactured goods
Atlantic World
Trade products from Americas to Europe
Furs, tobacco, silver, sugar (colonial products)
Atlantic World
Trade products from Americas to Americas
silver
Atlantic World
History of African Slavery
Trafficking African slaves goes back to ancient times. by 15th century it continued at a steady level. Traded slaves to middle east, Ottoman Empire for domestic servantry. Traded to Renaissance Italy (also slaves from Black Sea) as dock workers.
Atlantic World
Portugal exploration
On Route to East Asia, Portugese created ports at stops along the way. Took 1,000 slaves/year back to Portugal to serve the rich. Discovering of Americas encourages Portugese to consider vast wealth opportunities of slave trade to countless land holders in colonies.
Atlantic World
Sugar Slaves
Situation changed dramatically with production of sugar, introduced to Europe from Mid-East. By 1630, 15,000 tons of sugar grown annually, needed more strong workers (from Africa). Sugar can't grow in African climate, so slaves moved to Brazil and Caribbean to grow sugar.
Atlantic World
1518
ship carried first slaves into New World
Atlantic World
sugars influence on mercantilism
mercantilism realized sugar and other commodities brought fortunes. Needed slaves to keep up with crops and produce goods that could be sold for less than they're worth because labor was unpaid.
Atlantic World
South Africa
nation state created when Dutch siezed Portugese forts in the mid 17th century.
Atlantic World
Boers
Farmers whose descendants created regimes that held a desire to be free
Atlantic World
participants in slave trade
French, Danish, Prussians, Americans, but Dominated by English.
Atlantic World
11 million
slaves brought to America
Atlantic World
African middlemen
Africans in charge of selling their African brothers and sisters into slavery. In charge of setting European prices for slaves. Captured, kidnapped slaves in return for dyed textiles, furniture, manufactured goods, and GUNS, which led to escalated hatred.
Atlantic World
(1st)Consequence of Atlantic Slave Trade
immediate, many who became slaves were between the ages of 14 and 35 were kidnapped. heads shaved, stripped naked, some branded. men and women separated. men -leg irons, women -sex with officers or beaten. considered property of their masters, expected to learn their master's language. worked 15-18 hr days. fed enough to keep on feet. death rates high, esp. in Brazil because extreme changes in weather.
Atlantic World
(2nd)Consequence of Atlantic Slave Trade
biological racism.
slave trade bothered members of churches. churches didn't intervene, but individuals did by leading abolitionist movements. Used Genesis as reason why slave trade bad.
Atlantic World
Theory of Doctrine of Monogenesis
Genesis used as reason why slave trade bad. Genesis, creation story states that all came from the same two people in the beginning, so all people are essentially the same.
Atlantic World
Slavers response to Monogenesis
Didn't like to be accused of immoral behavior, so they dehumanized their victims by saying they weren't fully human because they were dump, dirty and animalistic.
Atlantic World
Religious Abolitionists response to slavers
blacks are dumb because you don't educate them, dirty because you don't allow them to wash, and animalistic because you give them very little food, so they must fight for food to survive.
Atlantic World
(3rd)Consequence of Atlantic Slave Trade
slave trade permanently altered consumption patterns for regular people. 100 million pounds per year by 1730. Sugar shortages led to riots in Paris. Beginning of Western Consumerism.
Supported boom, provided workforce.
Atlantic World