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43 Cards in this Set

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Who: Assyrians
What: Established trade throughout with an aggresive military power and with help of rulers. When collapsed was taken over by Neo-Babylonian Empire (Nebakanezzer).
Where:Northern Mesopotamia-expanded from Tigris to Nile.
When: Middle Assyrian (1362-859 BCE)Expansion and defence of power.
Neo-Assyrian Empri(859-627 BCE)
Why:Extended their boarders to far.
Who: Assyrian God, depicted as sun disk w/ head and shoulders of an archer.
What: His followers believed that he demaded worship through military conquest.
Who:aka Chaldeans
What:Dystroyed last remnants of Assyrian power on upper Euphrates. And succeded to predominant imperial power in Mesopotamina and the Levant.
When:605 BC
Why: To get the mean Assyrians out of power, and to gain upper hand in power.
Nebuchadnessar II
Who:Chaldean king.
What:Captured Jerusalem. Destroyed temple and removed 10s of thousands of Hebrews to Babylon, an exile known in Jewish history as the Babylonian Captivity.
When:587/586 BCE
Why:Wanted to deport their conquered foes from their homeland.
Babylonian Captivity
Who: Hebrews
What: Their templed was dystroyed and they were carried off to Babylon by Chaldeans away from their holy place.
Where: Babylon
When:Began 587 BCE
Why: The Chaldeans gained power from Assyrians and wanted to get revenge on them for taking their land. Wanted to take them from their holy center in hope that they would collapse.
Cyrus the Great
Who: Ruler of the Persians.
What: He beat the Chaldean empire (very large at this time), freed those in captivity. Was a tolerant king. Died in battle.
When:(c.585-c.529 BCE)
Why: He took over a large empire and gave it to the Persians and left it to his son.
Who: Persians "Persia City"
What: A new royal residence and ceremonial capital, built by Darius I.
Where: Persian Empire
When: Between 521-486 (Darius's reign)
Who: Assyrians
What:Winged Human-Headed Bull, naturalism and non-naturalism
Where: Found in citadels and in Palace of King Sargon II, Khorsabad
When:(720-705 BC)
Why: Used to scare away intruders.
Ishtar Gate
Who: Built by King Nebuchadnezzar.
What: Impressive Gate
Where: Babylon
When:575 BCE
Who: Pythagoras
What: Pythagrian Theory, a2+b2=c2. Famous for: Believed numbers give order and harmony and need balance. Harmoney of Spheres, Relationships in numbers.
When:(c.580-500 BC)
Why: Move away from God as explanation.

What:Father of Medicine, Hippocratic Oath, looked to nature to fight disease.
Where:Milesian School
When: (c.460-377 BC)
Why:Move away from God as explanation for disease and the cure.
Who: The Greeks
What: A "city-state" the solution to the challenge of unity. Was a unique blend of institutional and infromal structures or organization.
Where: Greece
When: 19c. BC
Why: Each community had its own traditions and were loyal only to their town, they had to unite them some how.
Who: Tyrants
What: The Tyranny of aristocratics would cause a democracy like government when the hoplites or the oppressed were given a voice and chance of participation.
When: (800-480 BCE)
Why: The acristocrats at the time would get upset and want ful power so they would start a tyranny and try to get support throught the oppresed.
What:Synoikismos was the bringing together of dwellings. This was a synoikismos that took place around a defensible hilltop.
Where: Athens

ALSO: high point of greek city, refuge in time of war.
Who: Ancient Greek
What: The open marketplace, often used for public meetings.
Who:Sole archon for one year. Was a merchant and trustworthy.
What: Was given power to re-organize Athenian govenment. Made political and economic reforms that failed but laid foundation for later development of Athenian democracy.
Where: Athens
When: 594-546 BCE
Who: Aristocrat.
What:Voted in as archon, took steps to limit aristocratic power. Reorganized population into 10 voting tribes suppressd reginonal identities w/in Attica which were important source of aristocratic influence.
Where: Athens
When: c. late 6th century BC
Why: To prevent the return of a tyrant w/ this power
What: Everything Athens was not. Basic, Earthy, Traditional. Had duel monarchy, most militarized polis in Greece. Believed in army so much city was unfortified, was a war society. wanted to maintain tranditional constitutions of greece.
Where: Greece
When: c. 700 BC
Enslaved Messenians were called this.
Helot revolt caused Sparta to become the most militarized polis in Greece.
Who: The father of history.
What: Wrote- History of the Persian Wars. Reflects intellectual currents in mid 5th c. Athens. Showed immediate cause of the war was a political conflict in Miletus
When:(c.484-c.420 BCE)
Dipylon Amphora
Who: Greeks
What: Vase set up over tombs to serve as grave markers, had holes in bases so that offerings could be poured down to dead. Scenes show processinos of warriors. We see morners taring hair in grief
Where:Dipylon cemetary, Athens
When: c. 750 BC
Who: Greeks
What: Sculptures nudity shows break from Egyptian tradition of clothing. Stance is firmly based on Egyptian tradition, and the wig-like hair.
Where: Attica
When:c.600 BCE
Kroisos from Anavyssos
See essay Notes
Peplos Kore
WHat:The statue is identified by the woolen peplos (mantle) the woman is wearing over her dress. The missing left arm was extended. Greeks painted important parts of statues.
Persian Wars
What:Caused by confilt in Miletus. Contained Battle of Marathon, Battle of Thermopylae (the Athens had to abandon their city (480 BC), Navel Battle at Salamis, Persians weren't ready for a ready Greek fleet and were dystroyed. Also dystroyed in Battle of Platea
When: 490-479 BC
Ionian Revolt
Who:Aristagoras, Milesians, Ionians
What: Cause of the Persian Wars, Aristagoras a tyrant (puppet) was afraid to lose his power, so roused others to stick up a revolt. Sought military support from the Greek mainland. Athens agreed. Burnt down Persian adminstrative center. However Greeks lost and left and Dirus was furious w/ athens and retaliated in 492.
Where: Persia
When:499 BC
Battle of Marathon
Who: Greeks vs. Persians
What:26 miles from Athens, greeks outnumbered Persians, Athens was victorious, men ran 26 miles to give message of victory, after persians didn't enter greece for 10 years.
When:490 BC
Oath of Plataea
What: An oath to not rebuild the athenian acropolis
Where: Plataea
When:489 BC after battle of Plataea
Who: Historian, Father of History.
What: Wrote about the Persian wars, Said Persians lost because of the Hubris. Hubris - Greek word for insolence, excessive and therefor destructive pride and ambition.
When: (c. 485-425 BC)lived
Who: Aristocrat and General
What: Responsibe for Golden Age of Athens. Started building and sculpture program on Athenian Acropolis. Died after war began from Bubonic Plague.
Where: Athens
When: (r. 443-429)
Peloponnesian Wars
Who: The Athens vs. Sparta
What: Caused by Pericles moving funds to the Delians League from Delos to Athens to rebuilt the Acropolis. The league was made to keep Greek independence against the Persians. Now they accused the Athens of becoming a tyrannical empire itself.
Athens was "winning" until 429 when a plague broke out killing many of the athenian population. Athenian went to attack city of Syracuse in Sicily and failed. 404 The Athenian fleet (only thing left) had been defeated and they could not defend their city.
Where: Athens/ Seas
When:(431-404 BC)
Why: Athens lost, and now once again a democrcy w/ more moderate behavior. And Spartans become un popular.
Who: Historian
What: History of the Pelopponnesian War. Tries to remain netural in his analysis of the war, by analyzing the human motives and reactions.
When: 460 BC
Who: Humanist philosopher (like sophists)
What: Believed in absolute nature of truth and justice. Believed that knowledge is a pre-requist. Performed the Dialectical Method (Socratic Method)- Q&A technique and would follow up w/ another question. Would do this out on the streets. Was tried and executed for corrupting the youth.
Where: Greece
When:(c. 470-399 BC)
Why: There was now a shift in thinking that nature is the source of answers about what the world is made of.
Who: Student of Socrates, had own views.
What: Founded the Academy of Philosophical Society. Believed in the spiritual realm. Developed the Theory of Form- that all visible things are unreal copies of forms and ideas. Believed education was crucial to live ethical meaningful life. Wrote the "Allegory of the Cave" from the REPUBLIC.
Where: Greece
When: (c. 428-347 BC)
Who: Student of Plato
What: Tutored Alexander the Great, founded School in Athens the Liteum. The Golden Mean- Balance and moderation are the key. Mean is relaitve determined by reason.Moderation only way to ideal society. Society nees education and talent and to avoid extremes.
When: (384-322 BC)
Why: Shift from worldly things coming from supernatural to natural to human mind.
Oedipus the King
Who: By Sophocles
What: Greek Tragedy, about a king destined to kill his father and marry his mother. Irony.
Where: Greece
When: (c. 429 BC)
The "Allegory of the Cave"
Who: By Plato from his REPUBLIC
What: Applied his ideas about Theory of Form- People in cave see only shadows, they see light which is true knowledge, the shadows are not ture. It is the quest for the ideal, and that you can only get to the ideal through knowledge.
Where: Greece
When:(c. 375 BC)
Nicomacheans Ethics
Who: Aristotle
When: (c. 340 BC)
Kritios Boy
What: Sculpture, shows shift in body (stance), realistic muscles.
Where: Acropolis, Athens
When: (c. 480 BC)
Polykleitos' Doryphoros (Spear-bearer)
What: Roman marble copy of bronze original.
When: (c. 450-440 BC)
Athenian Acropolis
Who: Athens
What: Parthenon (448-432 BC)- Temple of Athena Nike (427-424) Erechtheion (421-405 BC).
Praxiteles' Hermes w/ Infant Dionysus
What: Hermes w/ an infant holding grapes out of his reach. small head and elongated proportions typical of 4th c. sculpture. COPY?
When: (c. 340 BC)