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75 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
Is the branch of science that studies the structure, or Morphology of the body.
Physilogy
Is the branch of science that describes how the body works or functions.
Pathophysiology
Is the branch of science that describes the consequences of the improper functioning of the body parts.
Cells
the larger molecules organized into cells, the basic unit of life.
Tissues
Specialized grups of cells from tissues.
Organs
Tissues arranged from tissues into organs, such as the heart, stomach, and kidney.
Organ Systems
Groups of organs, in turn, create organ systems.
Integumentary System
Consists of the skin and related structures such as hair and nails.
Skeletal System
Forms the basic framework of the body. It consists primarily of bones, joints, and cartilage. The skeleton protects and suports body organs.
Muscular System
Consists of three types of muscles. Skeletal muscles attach to the bones and are responsible for movement of the skeleton and maintenance of body posture.
Nervous System
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
Endocrine System
Consists of numerous glands that secrete hormones and chemical substances that regulate body activities such as growth, reproduction, metabolism, and water balance.
Circulatory System
Consists of the heart and blood vessels. This system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
Lymphatic System
Consists of the lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph, and other lymphoid organs.
Respiratory System
Consists of the lungs and other structures that conduct air to and from the lungs.
Digestive System
Consists of organs designed to eat food, break it down into substances that can be absorbed by the body, and eliminate the waste.
Urinary System
Consists of the kidneys and other structures that help excrete waste products from the body through the urine.
Reproductive System
Consists of organs and structures that enable humans to reproduce.
Homeostasis
Literally means staying (Stasis) the same (homeo). The term refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in response to a changing external environment.
Homeostatic Mechanisms
Mechanisms that help maintain homostasis are called homeostatic Mechanisms.
Anatomical Position
the body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toesand palms of the hands directed forward.
Superior
Means that a part is above another part or is closer to the head.
Inferior
Means that a part is located below another part or is closer to the feet.
Anterior
Means toward the front surface (the belly surface).
Posterior
Means toward the back surface.
Ventral
Another word for Anterior.
Dorsal
Another word for Posterior.
Medial
Means toward the midline of the body.
Lateral
Means away from the midline of the body.
Proximal
Means that the structure is nearer the point of attatchment, often the trunk of the body.
Distal
Means that a part is farther away from the point at attachment than is another part.
Superficial
Means that a part is located on or near the surface of the body.
Deep
Means that the body part is away from the surface of the body.
Central
Means that the part is located in the center.
Peripheral
Means away from the center.
Sagittal Plane
Divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions.
Midsagittal Section
If the cut is made exactly down the midline of the body, the right and left halves of the body are equal. This division is a midsagittal section.
Frontal Plane
Divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions. This plane creates the front part of the bod and the back part of the body. Also called Coronal Plane.
Transverse Plane
Divides the obdy horizontally, creating an upper (superior) and a lower (inferior) body.
Abdominal
Anterior trunk just below the ribs.
Antecubital
Are in front of the elbow.
Axillary
Armpit.
Brachial
Arm.
Buccal
Cheek area, specifically between the gums and cheek.
Cephalic
head.
Cervical
Neck Region.
Cranial
Nearer to the head.
Digital
Fingers, toes.
Femoral
Thigh area.
Flank
Fleshy are along each side between the lower ribs and the top of the hip bones.
Inguinal
Area where the thigh meets the trunk of the body.
Oral
Mouth.
Orbital
Area around the eye.
Patellar
Front of the knee.
Pedal
Foot.
Pubic
Genital area.
Sternal
Middle of the chest (over the breast bone area).
Umbilical
Navel.
Caudal
Nearer to the lower region of the spinal column (near your tailbone)
Deltoid
Rounded area of te shoulder closest to the upper arm.
Gluteal
Buttocks.
Lumbar
Are of the back between the ribs and the hips.
Occipital
Back of the head.
popliteal
Behind, or back of, the knee area.
Scapular
Shoulder blade area.
Viscera
The organs, called viscera, are located within the cavity of the body.
Dorsal Cavity
Is located toward the back of the obdy and has two divisions, the cranial cavity and the spinal (vertebral cavity).
Cranial Cavity
Is located within the skull and contains the brain.
Spinal (vertebral) Cavity
Extends downward from the cranial cavity adn is surrounded by bony vertebrae; it contains the spinal cord.
Ventral Cavity
Is located toward the front of the body and has two divisions, the thoracic cavity adn the abdominopelvic cavity.
Thracic Cavity
Is located above the diaphragm and is surrounded by the rib cage.
Mediastinum
A space that contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and large blood vessels attached to the hart.
Pleural Cavities
The right and left lungs are located on either side of the mediastinum. The lungs occupy most of the space within the thoracic cavity.
Abdominal Cavity
Is located below the diaphragm, it contains the stomach, most of the intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidneys.
Pelvic Cavity
Lower portion of the abdominopelvic cavity. Its extends downward from the level of the hips and includes the reainder of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and internal parts of the reproductive system